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Hydnellum scabrosum

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Hydnellum scabrosum
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Thelephorales
Family: Bankeraceae
Genus: Hydnellum
Species:
H. scabrosum
Binomial name
Hydnellum scabrosum
(Fr.) E.Larss., K.H.Larss. & Kõljalg[1]
Synonyms

Sarcodon scabrosus (Fr.) P. Karst.

Hydnellum scabrosum
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
Mycological characteristics
teeth on hymenium
cap is convex or flat
hymenium is subdecurrent or adnate
stipe is bare
spore print is brown
ecology is mycorrhizal
edibility: inedible

Hydnellum scabrosum, also called bitter tooth or bitter hedgehog, is a species of tooth fungus in the family Bankeraceae.

Taxonomy

It was originally described by Swedish botanist Elias Fries as Hydnum scabrosum in 1836. Finnish mycologist Petter Karsten moved it to the genus Sarcodon in 1881. This species remained as Sarcodon scabrosus until 2019, when a molecular analysis using nuclear DNA showed that this and 11 other species lay genetically within the genus Hydnellum, a genus of which harder woody flesh had previously been considered a distinguishing feature from soft-fleshed Sarcodon.[1]

Within the genus it is most closely related to H. fennicum.[1]

Description

The fruit body (mushroom) has a convex to flattened yellow-brown cap up to 12 cm (4.7 in) across that is covered with brown scales. It can be tinged with pink at the margins and darken with age. The mushroom has yellow-brown spines under the cap that are 5 mm (0.20 in) long and 0.3 mm (0.012 in) in diameter. They are decurrent to the stem. The pinkish brown stem is 2–12 cm (0.8–4.7 in) high and 1–6 cm (0.4–2.4 in) wide, and has a narrower base that is a characteristic greyish green colour. The flesh is whitish and has a bitter taste, rendering the mushroom inedible. The flesh smells like watermelon when cut.[2]

Distribution and habitat

It is found in association with hardwood forests across Eurasia to Japan, as well as North America.[3]

Biochemistry

The species has been investigated for bioactive agents. In 2004, Tsunashi Kamo and colleagues isolated diterpenoids with experimental anti-inflammatory activity.[4] Other diterpenoids were shown to stimulate nerve growth factor (NGF).[5] Yet another agent, an alpha-pyrone, was shown to inhibit lettuce seedling growth.[3]

References

  1. ^ a b c Larsson, Svantesson, Miscevic, Kõljalg, Larsson (2019). "Reassessment of the generic limits for Hydnellum and Sarcodon (Thelephorales, Basidiomycota)". MycoKeys. 54: 31–47. doi:10.3897/mycokeys.54.35386. PMC 6579789. PMID 31231164.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ Marcotullio, Maria Carla (2011). "Sarcodon Mushrooms: Biologically Active Metabolites". In Iraj Rasooli (ed.). Phytochemicals Bioactivities and Impact on Health. pp. 84–85. ISBN 978-953-307-424-5.
  3. ^ a b Endo, Yasuhisa; Minowa, Akira; Kanamori, Ryo; Araya, Hiroshi (2012). "A rare α-pyrone from bitter tooth mushroom, Sarcodon scabrosus (Fr.) Karst". Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 44: 286–288. doi:10.1016/j.bse.2012.06.018.
  4. ^ Kamo, Tsunashi; Imura, Yuki; Hagio, Tomomi; Makabe, Hidefumi; Shibata, Hisao; Hirota, Mitsuru (2004). "Anti-inflammatory Cyathane Diterpenoids from Sarcodon scabrosus". Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 68 (6): 1362–1365. doi:10.1271/bbb.68.1362. PMID 15215604.
  5. ^ Kita, Takako; Takaya, Yoshiaki; Oshima, Yoshiteru; Ohta, Tomihisa; Aizawa, Koichi; Hirano, Takaaki; Inakuma, Takahiro (1998). "Scabronines B, C, D, e and F, novel diterpenoids showing stimulating activity of nerve growth factor-synthesis, from the mushroom Sarcodon scabrosus". Tetrahedron. 54 (39): 11877–11886. doi:10.1016/S0040-4020(98)83045-7.
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Hydnellum scabrosum
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