10 Gigabit Ethernet

Standards for Ethernet at ten times the speed of Gigabit Ethernet / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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10 Gigabit Ethernet (abbreviated 10GE, 10GbE, or 10 GigE) is a group of computer networking technologies for transmitting Ethernet frames at a rate of 10 gigabits per second. It was first defined by the IEEE 802.3ae-2002 standard. Unlike previous Ethernet standards, 10GbE defines only full-duplex point-to-point links which are generally connected by network switches; shared-medium CSMA/CD operation has not been carried over from the previous generations of Ethernet standards[1] so half-duplex operation and repeater hubs do not exist in 10GbE.[2] The first standard for faster 100 Gigabit Ethernet links was approved in 2010.[3]

Router with two dozen 10 Gigabit Ethernet ports and three types of physical-layer module

The 10GbE standard encompasses a number of different physical layer (PHY) standards. A networking device, such as a switch or a network interface controller may have different PHY types through pluggable PHY modules, such as those based on SFP+.[4] Like previous versions of Ethernet, 10GbE can use either copper or fiber cabling. Maximum distance over copper cable is 100 meters but because of its bandwidth requirements, higher-grade cables are required.[lower-alpha 1]

The adoption of 10GbE has been more gradual than previous revisions of Ethernet: in 2007, one million 10GbE ports were shipped, in 2009 two million ports were shipped, and in 2010 over three million ports were shipped,[5][6] with an estimated nine million ports in 2011.[7] As of 2012, although the price per gigabit of bandwidth for 10GbE was about one-third compared to Gigabit Ethernet, the price per port of 10GbE still hindered more widespread adoption.[8][9]

By 2022, the price per port of 10GBase-T had dropped to $50 - $100 depending on scale.[10] In 2023, Wi-Fi 7 routers began appearing with 10GbE WAN ports as standard.