2014 Gaza War

Armed conflict between Israel and Palestinian militants / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The 2014 Gaza War, also known as Operation Protective Edge (Hebrew: מִבְצָע צוּק אֵיתָן, romanized: Miv'tza Tzuk Eitan, lit.'Operation Strong Cliff'),[note 3][26][27][28] was a military operation launched by Israel on 8 July 2014 in the Gaza Strip, a Palestinian territory that has been governed by Hamas since 2007.[note 4] Following the kidnapping and murder of three Israeli teenagers in the West Bank by Hamas-affiliated Palestinian militants, the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) initiated Operation Brother's Keeper, in which some 350 Palestinians, including nearly all of the active Hamas militants in the West Bank, were arrested.[29][30][31] Hamas subsequently fired a greater number of rockets into Israel from the Gaza Strip, triggering a seven-week-long conflict between the two sides. It was one of the deadliest outbreaks of open conflict between Israel and the Palestinians in decades. The combination of Palestinian rocket attacks and Israeli airstrikes resulted in thousands of deaths, the vast majority of which were Gazan Palestinians.[32]

2014 Gaza War
Part of the Gaza–Israel conflict and the Iran–Israel proxy conflict

Left, right:
Date8 July – 26 August 2014
(1 month, 2 weeks and 4 days)

Victory claimed by both sides[1]

  • According to Israel, Hamas was severely weakened and achieved none of its demands[2]
  • According to Hamas, Israel was repelled from Gaza[3]

 Gaza Strip

Commanders and leaders
Benjamin Netanyahu
(Prime Minister)
Moshe Ya'alon
(Defense Minister)
Benny Gantz
(Chief of General Staff)
Amir Eshel
(Air Force Commander)
Ram Rothberg
(Naval Commander)
Sami Turgeman
(Southern Commander)
Mickey Edelstein
(Gaza Division)
Yoram Cohen
(Chief of Shin Bet)
Khaled Mashal
(Leader of Hamas)
Ismail Haniyeh
(Deputy Chief of Hamas)
Mohammed Deif
(Head of Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades)
Ramadan Shalah
(Leader of Islamic Jihad)
Units involved
Israel Defense Forces
Shin Bet
Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades
al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades
Abu Ali Mustapha Brigades
Al-Nasser Salah al-Deen Brigades
Al-Quds Brigades
176,500 active personnel
565,000 reservists[9](2012 figures, of which not all are directly involved)

Al-Qassam Brigades: 20,000[10]–40,000[11]

Al-Quds Brigades: 8,000[12]
Casualties and losses
67 soldiers and 6 civilians (1 Thai) killed,[13][14][15] 469 soldiers and 87 civilians wounded[16][17] Gaza Health Ministry: 2,310 killed[18] (70% civilians[19]), 10,626 wounded[18]
UN HRC: 2,251 killed [note 1][20](65% civilians[20])
Israel MFA: 2,125 killed [note 2][21](36% civilians, 44% combatants, 20% uncategorized males aged 16–50[21])
At least 23 Gazans executed by Hamas[22]

The Israeli military operation aimed to stop rocket fire into Israel from the Gaza Strip. Conversely, Hamas' attacks aimed to bring international pressure onto Israel with the strategic goal of forcing the latter to lift the Israeli–Egyptian blockade of the Gaza Strip; among its other goals were to end Israel's military offensive, obtain a third party to monitor and guarantee compliance with a ceasefire,[33] release Palestinian political prisoners and overcome its isolation.[34] According to the BBC, Israel launched airstrikes on the Gaza Strip in retaliation to the rocket attacks by Hamas, Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ), and other Palestinian militant groups.[35]

On 7 July, after seven Hamas militants died in a tunnel explosion in Khan Yunis that was caused either by an Israeli airstrike (per Hamas, Nathan Thrall, BBC, and a senior IDF official)[36] or an accidental explosion of their own munitions (per the IDF), Hamas assumed responsibility for rockets fired into Israel, and subsequently launched 40 more rockets towards Israel.[37][38] The Israeli aerial operation officially began the following day, and on 17 July, it was expanded to include a full-scale ground invasion of the Gaza Strip with the stated aim of destroying Gaza's tunnel system;[39] the Israeli ground invasion ended on 5 August.[40] On 26 August, an open-ended ceasefire was announced.[41] By this time, the IDF reported that Hamas, PIJ, and other Palestinian militant groups had fired 4,564 rockets and mortars into Israel, with over 735 projectiles having been intercepted mid-flight and shot down by Israel's Iron Dome. Most Gazan mortar and rocket fire was inaccurate, and consequently hit open land; more than 280 projectiles had landed within the Gaza Strip,[42][43][44] and 224 had struck residential areas.[45][46] Palestinian rocketry also killed 13 Palestinian civilians in Gaza, 11 of them children.[47][48] The IDF attacked 5,263 targets in the Gaza Strip; at least 34 known tunnels were destroyed[45] and two-thirds of Hamas's 10,000-rocket arsenal was either used up or destroyed.[49][50]

Between 2,125[21] and 2,310[18] Gazans were killed during the conflict while between 10,626[18] and 10,895[51] were wounded (including 3,374 children, of whom over 1,000 were left permanently disabled).[52] Gazan civilian casualty estimates range between 70 percent by the Gaza Health Ministry,[14][19][51] 65 percent by the United Nations' (UN) Protection Cluster by OCHA (based in part on Gaza Health Ministry reports),[20] and 36 percent by Israeli officials.[53][21] The UN estimated that more than 7,000 homes for 10,000 families were razed, together with an additional 89,000 homes damaged, of which roughly 10,000 were severely affected by the bombing.[54] Rebuilding costs were calculated to run from US$4–6 billion over the course of 20 years.[55] 67 Israeli soldiers, 5 Israeli civilians (including one child)[56] and one Thai civilian were killed[14] while 469 Israeli soldiers and 261 Israeli civilians were injured.[17] On the Israeli side, the economic impact of the operation is estimated to have had an impact of NIS 8.5 billion (approximately US$2.5 billion) and a GDP loss of 0.4 percent.[57]