The 2024 United States Senate elections are scheduled to be held on November 5, 2024, as part of the 2024 United States elections. 33 of the 100 seats in the U.S. Senate will be contested in regular elections, the winners of which will serve six-year terms in the U.S. Congress from January 3, 2025, to January 3, 2031, and two special elections will be held to complete unexpired terms. Senators are divided into three classes whose terms are staggered so that a different class is elected every two years. Class 1 senators, who were last elected in 2018, will be up for election again in 2024. Numerous other federal, state, and local elections, including the U.S. presidential election and elections to the House, will also be held on this date.
34 of the 100 seats in the United States Senate
51 seats needed for a majority
Map of the incumbents:
Democratic incumbent Democratic incumbent retiring
Republican incumbent Republican incumbent retiring
Rectangular inset (Nebraska): both seats up for election
As of November 2023, 21 senators (14 Democrats, 6 Republicans, and 1 independent) have announced plans to run for reelection. Two Republicans, Mike Braun of Indiana and Mitt Romney of Utah, along with five Democrats, Laphonza Butler of California, Ben Cardin of Maryland, Tom Carper of Delaware, Debbie Stabenow of Michigan, and Joe Manchin of West Virginia, have announced their plans to retire. Butler had been appointed to the Senate in 2023 following the death of sitting California senator Dianne Feinstein and opted against running for election to finish the unexpired term and for election to a full term.
Two special elections will take place concurrently with the 2024 regular Senate elections, one in California to fill the vacancy created by Feinstein's death for the final two months of the term, and one in Nebraska, following Ben Sasse's resignation to become president of the University of Florida in 2023.
Elections analysts consider the map for these elections, like the Class 1 Senate elections in 2018, unfavorable to Democrats, who will be defending 23 of the 33 Class 1 seats. Democrats are defending three seats in this class in states won by Donald Trump in both 2016 and 2020 (incumbents in Montana and Ohio, plus an open seat in West Virginia), while there are no seats in this class held by Republicans in states won by Joe Biden in 2020. Furthermore, Democrats are defending seats in six states that Biden won by a single-digit margin (incumbents in Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, Nevada, Minnesota, and Maine, plus an open seat in Michigan) while Republican are defending only two seats in states that Trump won by a single-digit margin (incumbents in Florida and Texas). Additionally, Kyrsten Sinema's first term is ending in Arizona, a state that Biden won by less than half a point in 2020; before the end of the 117th Congress, Sinema left the Democratic Party and became an independent, and it is unclear whether national Democrats will support her reelection campaign, if she chooses to run, or back a Democrat. In the two previous Senate election cycles that coincided with presidential elections (2016 and 2020), only one senator (Susan Collins in 2020) was elected in a state that was won by the presidential nominee of the opposite party.
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