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Alfonso X (also known as the Wise, Spanish: el Sabio; 23 November 1221 – 4 April 1284) was King of Castile, León and Galicia from 30 May 1252 until his death in 1284. During the election of 1257, a dissident faction chose him to be king of Germany on 1 April. He renounced his claim to Germany in 1275, and in creating an alliance with the Kingdom of England in 1254, his claim on the Duchy of Gascony as well.
|King of Castile and León|
|Reign||1 June 1252 – 4 April 1284|
|Born||23 November 1221|
|Died||4 April 1284(1284-04-04) (aged 62)|
|Spouse||Violant of Aragon|
|Berengaria, Lady of Guadalajara|
Beatrice, Marchioness of Monferrat
Ferdinand de la Cerda
Sancho IV, King of Castile
Peter, Lord of Ledesma
John, Lord of Valencia de Campos
Violant, Lady of Biscay
James, Lord of Cameros
Beatrice, Queen of Portugal
|House||Castilian House of Ivrea|
|Father||Ferdinand III of Castile|
|Mother||Elisabeth of Swabia|
Alfonso X fostered the development of a cosmopolitan court that encouraged learning. Jews, Muslims, and Christians were encouraged to have prominent roles in his court. As a result of his encouraging the translation of works from Arabic and Latin into the vernacular of Castile, many intellectual changes took place, including the encouragement of the use of Castilian as a primary language of higher learning, science, and law.
Alfonso was a prolific author of Galician poetry, such as the Cantigas de Santa Maria, which are equally notable for their musical content as for their literary merit. Alfonso's scientific interests—he is sometimes nicknamed the Astrologer (el Astrólogo)—led him to sponsor the creation of the Alfonsine tables, and the Alphonsus crater on the Moon is named after him. He also sponsored the work of historians, who for the first time placed Spain—he would have called it that—in the context of world history. As a lawmaker he introduced the first vernacular law code in Castile, the Siete Partidas. He created the Mesta, an association of sheep farmers in the central plain, but debased the coinage to finance his claim to the German crown. He fought a successful war with Portugal, but a less successful one with Granada. The end of his reign was marred by a civil war with his eldest surviving son, the future Sancho IV, which continued after his death.