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Atlantic hurricane

Tropical cyclone that forms in the Atlantic Ocean / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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An Atlantic hurricane is a type of tropical cyclone that forms in the Atlantic Ocean primarily between June and November. The terms "hurricane," "typhoon," and "cyclone" can be used interchangeably to describe this weather phenomenon. These storms are rotating, organized systems of clouds and thunderstorms that originate over tropical or subtropical waters and have closed low-level circulation. In the North Atlantic, central North Pacific, and eastern North Pacific, the term "hurricane" is mainly used, whereas "typhoon" is more commonly used for storms originating in the Pacific Northwest. The term "cyclone" is used in the South Pacific and Indian Ocean.[1]

Tracks of North Atlantic tropical cyclones from 1851 to 2019

Tropical cyclones can be categorized by intensity. Tropical storms have one-minute maximum sustained winds of at least 39 mph (34 knots, 17 m/s, 63 km/h), while hurricanes have one-minute maximum sustained winds exceeding 74 mph (64 knots, 33 m/s, 119 km/h).[2] Most North Atlantic tropical cyclones form between June 1 and November 30.[3] The United States National Hurricane Center monitors tropical weather systems for the North Atlantic Basin and issues reports, watches, and warnings. It is considered to be one of the Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers for tropical cyclones, as defined by the World Meteorological Organization.[4]

Until the mid 1900s, storms were named arbitrarily. From that period on, they were typically given feminine names. The practice of naming storms from a predetermined list began in 1953.[5] Since storm names may be used repeatedly, hurricanes that result in significant damage or casualties may have their names retired from the list at the request of the affected nations to prevent confusion.[6][5] On average, 14 named storms occur each season in the North Atlantic basin, with 7 becoming hurricanes and 3 becoming major hurricanes (Category 3 or greater).[7] The climatological peak of activity is typically around mid-September.[7]

In March 2004, Catarina became the first storm of hurricane strength to be recorded in the South Atlantic Ocean. Since 2011, the Brazilian Navy Hydrographic Center has started to use the same scale as the North Atlantic Ocean for tropical cyclones in the South Atlantic Ocean and assign names to those that reach 35 kn (65 km/h; 40 mph).[8]

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