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Bangladesh (/ˌbæŋɡləˈdɛʃ, ˌbɑːŋ-/;[15] Bengali: বাংলাদেশ, pronounced [ˈbaŋlaˌdeʃ] (Loudspeaker.svglisten)), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It is the eighth-most-populous country in the world, with a population of around 169 million people in an area of 148,460 square kilometres (57,320 sq mi).[10] Bangladesh is among the most densely populated countries in the world, and shares land borders with India to the west, north, and east, and Myanmar to the southeast; to the south it has a coastline along the Bay of Bengal. It is narrowly separated from Bhutan and Nepal by the Siliguri Corridor; and from China by the Indian state of Sikkim in the north. Dhaka, the capital and largest city, is the nation's political, financial and cultural centre. Chittagong, the second-largest city, is the busiest port on the Bay of Bengal. The official language is Bengali, one of the easternmost branches of the Indo-European language family.

24°N 90°E
Quick facts: People's Republic of
People's Republic of Bangladesh
  • গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ (Bengali)
  • Gônoprojatontrī Bangladesh
Anthem: "Amar Sonar Bangla" (Bengali)
"My Golden Bengal"
March: "Notuner Gaan"
"The Song of Youth"[1]
National Slogan: "Joy Bangla"
"Victory to Bengal"[2][3]
Official Seal of the Government of Bangladesh
  • Seal of the Government of Bangladesh
and largest city
23°45′50″N 90°23′20″E
Official language
and national language
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party parliamentary republic
Mohammed Shahabuddin
Sheikh Hasina
Shirin Sharmin Chaudhury
Hasan Foez Siddique
LegislatureJatiya Sangsad
 Independence as part of Pakistan and formerly part of the Raj
14th August 1947
26 March 1971
16 December 1971
16 December 1972
148,460[10] km2 (57,320 sq mi) (92nd)
 Water (%)
 Land area
130,170 km2[10]
 Water area
18,290 km2[10]
 2022 census
169,828,911[11] (8th)
1,305/km2 (3,379.9/sq mi) (7th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
Increase $1.475 trillion[12] (25th)
 Per capita
Increase $8,663[12] (128th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
Decrease $421 billion[12] (37th)
 Per capita
Decrease $2,470[12] (145th)
Gini (2022)Negative increase 49.9[13]
HDI (2021)Increase 0.661[14]
medium · 129th
CurrencyTaka () (BDT)
Time zoneUTC+6 (BST)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy (CE)
Driving sideleft
Calling code+880
ISO 3166 codeBD

Bangladesh forms the sovereign part of the historic and ethnolinguistic region of Bengal, which was divided during the Partition of India in 1947.[16] The country has a Bengali Muslim majority. Ancient Bengal was an important cultural centre in the Indian subcontinent as the home of the states of Vanga, Pundra, Gangaridai, Gauda, Samatata, and Harikela. The Mauryan, Gupta, Pala, Sena, Chandra and Deva dynasties were the last pre-Islamic rulers of Bengal. The Muslim conquest of Bengal began in 1204 when Bakhtiar Khalji overran northern Bengal and invaded Tibet. Becoming part of the Delhi Sultanate, three city-states emerged in the 14th century with much of eastern Bengal being ruled from Sonargaon. Sufi missionary leaders like Sultan Balkhi, Shah Jalal and Shah Makhdum Rupos helped in spreading Muslim rule. The region was unified into an independent, unitary Bengal Sultanate. Under Mughal rule, eastern Bengal continued to prosper as the melting pot of Muslims in the eastern subcontinent and attracted traders from around the world. The Bengali elite were among the richest people in the world due to strong trade networks like the muslin trade which supplied textiles, such as 40% of Dutch imports from Asia.[17] Mughal Bengal became increasingly assertive and independent under the Nawabs of Bengal in the 18th century. In 1757, the betrayal of Mir Jafar resulted in the defeat of Nawab Siraj-ud-Daulah to the British East India Company and eventual British dominance across South Asia. The Bengal Presidency grew into the largest administrative unit in British India. The creation of Eastern Bengal and Assam in 1905 set a precedent for the emergence of Bangladesh. In 1940, the first Prime Minister of Bengal A. K. Fazlul Huq supported the Lahore Resolution with the hope of creating a state in the eastern subcontinent. Prior to the partition of Bengal, the Prime Minister of Bengal proposed a Bengali sovereign state. A referendum and the announcement of the Radcliffe Line established the present-day territorial boundary of Bangladesh.

In 1947, East Bengal became the most populous province in the Dominion of Pakistan. It was renamed as East Pakistan, with Dhaka becoming the country's legislative capital. The Bengali Language Movement in 1952; the East Bengali legislative election, 1954; the 1958 Pakistani coup d'état; the six point movement of 1966; and the 1970 Pakistani general election resulted in the rise of Bengali nationalism and pro-democracy movements in East Pakistan. The refusal of the Pakistani military junta to transfer power to the Awami League led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman led to the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, in which the Mukti Bahini aided by India waged a successful armed revolution. The conflict saw the 1971 Bangladesh genocide and the massacre of pro-independence Bengali civilians, including intellectuals. The new state of Bangladesh became the first constitutionally secular state in South Asia in 1972.[18] Islam was declared the state religion in 1988.[19][20][21] In 2010, the Bangladesh Supreme Court reaffirmed secular principles in the constitution.[22]

A middle power in the Indo-Pacific,[23] Bangladesh is the second-largest economy in South Asia and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Bangladesh has also been identified by economist Jim O'Neill as one of the Next Eleven economies.[24] It maintains the third-largest military in the region and was the largest contributor of personnel to UN peacekeeping operations as of February 2023.[25] The large Muslim population of Bangladesh makes it the third-largest Muslim-majority country. Bangladesh has the lowest gender pay gap in South Asia[26] and also ranks highest in gender parity index.[27]The country has the fourth-highest per-capita income in the region on the World Bank and IMF lists.

Bangladesh is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic based on the Westminster system. Bengalis make up 99% of the total population of Bangladesh.[28] The country consists of eight divisions, 64 districts and 495 subdistricts.[29] It hosts one of the largest refugee populations in the world due to the Rohingya genocide.[30] Bangladesh faces many challenges, particularly corruption, political backlash, population crisis and effects of climate change.[31][32][33] Bangladesh has been a leader within the Climate Vulnerable Forum. It hosts the headquarters of BIMSTEC. It is a founding member of SAARC, as well as a member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Commonwealth of Nations.