Beer Hall Putsch

Failed 1923 Nazi coup attempt in Germany / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The Beer Hall Putsch, also known as the Munich Putsch,[1][note 1] was a failed coup d'état by Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) leader Adolf Hitler, Generalquartiermeister Erich Ludendorff and other Kampfbund leaders in Munich, Bavaria, on 8–9 November 1923, during the Weimar Republic. Approximately two thousand Nazis marched on the Feldherrnhalle, in the city centre, but were confronted by a police cordon, which resulted in the deaths of 15 Nazi Party members and collaborators, one bystander, and four police officers.[2]

Quick facts: Beer Hall Putsch, Date, Location, Action, Res...
Beer Hall Putsch
Part of Political violence in Germany (1918–1933)
Nazis at the Marienplatz in Munich during the Putsch
Date8–9 November 1923
Location48.130°N 11.592°E / 48.130; 11.592
ActionHitler and the Nazi Party planned to seize Munich and use the city as a base for a march against Germany's national government.

Reichswehr and police forces victory


Flag_variant_of_Nazi_Party_%281923%29.svg Kampfbund

Flag_of_Germany_%283-2_aspect_ratio%29.svg Weimar Republic

Commanders and leaders
Flag_variant_of_Nazi_Party_%281923%29.svg Adolf Hitler (WIA)
Flag_variant_of_Nazi_Party_%281923%29.svg Erich Ludendorff
Flag_variant_of_Nazi_Party_%281923%29.svg Ernst Röhm
Flag_variant_of_Nazi_Party_%281923%29.svg Rudolf Hess
Flag_variant_of_Nazi_Party_%281923%29.svg Ernst Pöhner
Flag_variant_of_Nazi_Party_%281923%29.svg Scheubner-Richter 
Flag_variant_of_Nazi_Party_%281923%29.svg Robert Wagner
Flag_variant_of_Nazi_Party_%281923%29.svg Hermann Göring (WIA)
Flag_variant_of_Nazi_Party_%281923%29.svg Heinrich Himmler
Military support
2,000+ 130
Casualties and losses
15 killed
About a dozen injured
Many captured and imprisoned
4 killed
Several wounded
1 civilian killed

Hitler escaped immediate arrest and was spirited off to safety in the countryside. After two days, he was arrested and charged with treason.[3]

The putsch brought Hitler to the attention of the German nation for the first time and generated front-page headlines in newspapers around the world. His arrest was followed by a 24-day trial, which was widely publicised and gave him a platform to express his nationalist sentiments to the nation. Hitler was found guilty of treason and sentenced to five years in Landsberg Prison,[note 2] where he dictated Mein Kampf to fellow prisoners Emil Maurice and Rudolf Hess. On 20 December 1924, having served only nine months, Hitler was released.[4][5] Once released, Hitler redirected his focus towards obtaining power through legal means rather than by revolution or force, and accordingly changed his tactics, further developing Nazi propaganda.[6]