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Hydrocarbon compound consisting of a 6-sided ring / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Benzene is an organic chemical compound with the molecular formula C6H6. The benzene molecule is composed of six carbon atoms joined in a planar hexagonal ring with one hydrogen atom attached to each. Because it contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms, benzene is classed as a hydrocarbon.[15]

Quick facts: Names, Identifiers, Properties, Structure, Th...
Benzene molecule
Space-filling model
Skeletal formula detail of benzene.
Skeletal formula detail of benzene.
Benzene ball-and-stick model
Benzene ball-and-stick model
Ball and stick model
Sample of benzene
Benzene at room temperature
IUPAC name
Other names
Benzol (historic/German)
Phenylene hydride
Cyclohexa-1,3,5-triene; 1,3,5-Cyclohexatriene (theoretical resonance isomers)
[6]Annulene (not recommended[1])
Phene (historic)
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.685 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • 200-753-7
RTECS number
  • CY1400000
  • InChI=1S/C6H6/c1-2-4-6-5-3-1/h1-6H checkY
  • c1ccccc1
Molar mass 78.114 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless liquid
Odor sweet aromatic
Density 0.8765(20) g/cm3[2]
Melting point 5.53 °C (41.95 °F; 278.68 K)
Boiling point 80.1 °C (176.2 °F; 353.2 K)
1.53 g/L (0 °C)
1.81 g/L (9 °C)
1.79 g/L (15 °C)[3][4][5]
1.84 g/L (30 °C)
2.26 g/L (61 °C)
3.94 g/L (100 °C)
21.7 g/kg (200 °C, 6.5 MPa)
17.8 g/kg (200 °C, 40 MPa)[6]
Solubility Soluble in alcohol, CHCl3, CCl4, diethyl ether, acetone, acetic acid[6]
Solubility in ethanediol 5.83 g/100 g (20 °C)
6.61 g/100 g (40 °C)
7.61 g/100 g (60 °C)[6]
Solubility in ethanol 20 °C, solution in ethanol:
1.2 mL/L (20% v/v)[7]
Solubility in acetone 20 °C, solution in acetone:
7.69 mL/L (38.46% v/v)
49.4 mL/L (62.5% v/v)[7]
Solubility in diethylene glycol 52 g/100 g (20 °C)[6]
log P 2.13
Vapor pressure 12.7 kPa (25 °C)
24.4 kPa (40 °C)
181 kPa (100 °C)[8]
Conjugate acid Benzenium[9]
Conjugate base Benzenide[10]
UV-vismax) 255 nm
−54.8·10−6 cm3/mol
1.5011 (20 °C)
1.4948 (30 °C)[6]
Viscosity 0.7528 cP (10 °C)
0.6076 cP (25 °C)
0.4965 cP (40 °C)
0.3075 cP (80 °C)
Trigonal planar
0 D
134.8 J/mol·K
173.26 J/mol·K[8]
48.7 kJ/mol
-3267.6 kJ/mol[8]
Occupational safety and health (OHS/OSH):
Main hazards
potential occupational carcinogen, flammable
GHS labelling:
GHS02: FlammableGHS06: ToxicGHS07: Exclamation markGHS08: Health hazardGHS09: Environmental hazard[11]
H225, H302, H304, H305, H315, H319, H340, H350, H372, H410[11]
P201, P210, P301+P310, P305+P351+P338, P308+P313, P331[11]
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
NFPA 704 four-colored diamondHealth 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g. chloroformFlammability 3: Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions. Flash point between 23 and 38 °C (73 and 100 °F). E.g. gasolineInstability 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g. liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no code
Flash point −11.63 °C (11.07 °F; 261.52 K)
497.78 °C (928.00 °F; 770.93 K)
Explosive limits 1.2–7.8%
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
930 mg/kg (rat, oral)[12]
44,000 ppm (rabbit, 30 min)
44,923 ppm (dog)
52,308 ppm (cat)
20,000 ppm (human, 5 min)[13]
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 1 ppm, ST 5 ppm[14]
REL (Recommended)
Ca TWA 0.1 ppm ST 1 ppm[14]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
500 ppm[14]
Safety data sheet (SDS) HMDB
Related compounds
Related compounds
Supplementary data page
Benzene (data page)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Benzene is a natural constituent of petroleum and is one of the elementary petrochemicals. Due to the cyclic continuous pi bonds between the carbon atoms, benzene is classed as an aromatic hydrocarbon. Benzene is a colorless and highly flammable liquid with a sweet smell, and is partially responsible for the aroma of gasoline. It is used primarily as a precursor to the manufacture of chemicals with more complex structure, such as ethylbenzene and cumene, of which billions of kilograms are produced annually. Although benzene is a major industrial chemical, it finds limited use in consumer items because of its toxicity. Benzene is a volatile organic compound.[16]