cover image

2018 Brazilian general election

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

General elections were held in Brazil on 7 October 2018 to elect the president, National Congress and state governors. As no candidate in the presidential election received more than 50% of the vote in the first round, a runoff round was held on 28 October.

Quick facts: Turnout, Candidate, Party, Alliance, Home&nbs...
2018 Brazilian general election

 2014
2022 
President
7 October 2018 (2018-10-07) (first round)
28 October 2018 (2018-10-28) (second round)
Opinion polls
Turnout79.67% (first round)
78.70% (second round)[1]
 
Candidate Jair Bolsonaro Fernando Haddad
Party PSL PT
Alliance Brazil Above Everything, God Above Everyone The People Happy Again
Home state Rio de Janeiro[lower-alpha 1] São Paulo
Running mate Hamilton Mourão Manuela d'Ávila
States carried 15 + DF 11
Popular vote 57,797,847 47,040,906
Percentage 55.13% 44.87%

Presidential election results

President before election

Michel Temer
MDB

Elected President

Jair Bolsonaro
PSL

Chamber of Deputies

All 513 seats
PartyLeader % Seats +/–
PSL Fernando Francischini 11.65 52 +51
PT Paulo Pimenta 10.30 56 -13
PSDB Nilson Leitão 6.01 29 -25
PSD Domingos Neto 5.85 34 -2
PP Arthur Lira 5.57 37 -1
MDB Baleia Rossi 5.53 34 -32
PSB Tadeu Alencar 5.48 32 -2
PR José Rocha 5.31 33 -1
PRB Celso Russomanno 5.08 30 +9
DEM Rodrigo Garcia 4.66 29 +8
PDT André Figueiredo 4.61 28 +9
PSOL Chico Alencar 2.83 10 +5
NOVO None 2.79 8 New
PODE Diego Garcia 2.28 11 +7
PROS Felipe Bornier 2.08 8 -3
PTB Jovair Arantes 2.06 10 -15
Solidariedade Wladimir Costa 1.99 13 -2
Avante Luis Tibé 1.88 7 +6
PSC Gilberto Nascimento 1.80 8 -5
PV José Luiz Penna 1.62 4 -4
PPS Alex Manente 1.62 8 -2
Patriota Junior Marreca 1.46 5 +3
PHS Marcelo Aro 1.45 6 +1
PCdoB Orlando Silva 1.35 9 -1
PRP None 0.87 4 +1
REDE João Derly 0.83 1 New
PMN None 0.64 3 0
PTC None 0.61 2 0
PPL Uldurico Junior 0.39 1 +1
DC None 0.38 1 -1
This lists parties that won seats. See the complete results below.
Chamber of Deputies election result
Senate

54 of the 81 seats
PartyLeader % Seats +/–
PT Lindbergh Farias 14.46 6 -6
PSDB Paulo Bauer 11.85 8 -2
PSL None 11.33 4 New
MDB Simone Tebet 7.47 12 -6
DEM Ronaldo Caiado 5.38 6 +1
PSB Antônio Carlos Valadares 4.80 2 -5
PSD Omar Aziz 4.79 7 +4
PDT Acir Gurgacz 4.52 5 -3
PP Ana Amélia Lemos 4.39 6 +1
REDE Randolfe Rodrigues 4.18 5 New
PODE Alvaro Dias 3.21 5 +5
PHS None 2.47 2 New
PSC None 2.41 1 +1
Solidariedade None 2.34 1 0
PR Vicente Alves 1.83 2 -2
PPS Cristovam Buarque 1.72 2 New
PRP None 1.15 1 +1
PTB Armando Monteiro 1.11 3 0
PCdoB Vanessa Grazziotin 0.98 0 -1
PRB Eduardo Lopes 0.88 1 0
PROS Hélio José 0.80 1 0
PTC Fernando Collor 0.13 1 +1
This lists parties that won seats. See the complete results below.
Senate election result
Close
Official 2018 elections logo

The election occurred during a tumultuous time in Brazilian politics. Narrowly re-elected in 2014,[2] President Dilma Rousseff of the centre-left Workers’ Party (PT), which had dominated Brazilian politics since 2002, was impeached in 2016.[3] Replacing her was her Vice President, Michel Temer of the centre-right Brazilian Democratic Movement Party.[4] Temer, whose age of 75 at inauguration made him the oldest to ever take office, broke sharply with his predecessor's policies and amended the constitution to freeze public spending.[5] He was extraordinarily unpopular, reaching an approval rating of 7% versus 76% in favor of his resignation.[6] Despite mass demonstrations against his rule, including a 2017 general strike and a 2018 truck drivers’ strike, Temer refused to step down and served the duration of his term in office.[7] Due to being convicted of breaking campaign finance laws, Temer was ineligible to run in 2018.[8]

The candidacy of Jair Bolsonaro, a controversial federal deputy from Rio de Janeiro known for his far-right politics[9][10][11][12] and defense of the former Brazilian military dictatorship,[13][9][14] overshadowed other conservative candidates. Noted for his vehement opposition to abortion[15] and same-sex marriage,[16][17] Bolsonaro joined the small Social Liberal Party (PSL) to mount his bid for the presidency, shifting the party's ideology in favor of social conservatism and nationalism.[18][19] Bolsonaro benefited from opposition to the former PT government and ran in favor of expanding gun ownership in response to high crime,[20] legalizing the death penalty,[21] and the privatization of state-owned companies.[22][23] For the position of Vice President, Bolsonaro chose Hamilton Mourão, a conservative retired general in the Brazilian Army.[24] During the campaign, Bolsonaro was the subject of widespread protests for his homophobic,[25] racist,[26] and misogynistic beliefs.[27][26] Former Governor of São Paulo Geraldo Alckmin, who ran as a member of the previously dominant centre-right Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB), received the worst result for a presidential nominee of his party in Brazilian history.

Former President Lula da Silva, once considered one of the most popular politicians in the world,[28][29][30] intended to run for president as the candidate of the PT with former Mayor of São Paulo Fernando Haddad as his running-mate.[31] Polling taken during the campaign found Lula as the favorite in both the first and second rounds of the election.[32][33] However, Lula's 2017 conviction on corruption charges barred him from running.[34][35] Haddad, who was largely unknown to Brazilian voters at the time,[36][37] was chosen to run in his place, with Communist Party of Brazil (PCdoB) deputy Manuela d’Avila of Rio Grande do Sul serving as his running mate.[38] His major opponent on the left was Ciro Gomes, a mainstay of Brazilian politics who ran a centre-left campaign as a member of the Democratic Labour Party (PDT).[39] Following Haddad's advancement to the second round, Ciro did not endorse his campaign, though he did signal opposition to Bolsonaro.[40]

The campaign was marked by political violence, with Bolsonaro being a victim of a stabbing attack at a campaign rally in Minas Gerais[41] and supporters of both Haddad and Bolsonaro falling victim to politically-motivated attacks.[42] Fake news spread on popular messaging app WhatsApp was a focal point of election coverage, with disinformation spread on the app being blamed for influencing voting intentions.[43] In the first round of the election, Bolsonaro received approximately 46% of the vote to Haddad's 29%, with Ciro coming in third place with over 12% of the vote. In the second round, Bolsonaro defeated Haddad by approximately ten percentage points, with the deputy receiving over 55% of the vote to less than 45% for Haddad. Bolsonaro took office on 1 January 2019 as President of Brazil.