cover image

Canon de 75 modèle 1897

Regimental artillery field gun / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Dear Wikiwand AI, let's keep it short by simply answering these key questions:

Can you list the top facts and stats about Canon de 75 modèle 1897?

Summarize this article for a 10 years old


The French 75 mm field gun was a quick-firing field artillery piece adopted in March 1898. Its official French designation was: Matériel de 75 mm Mle 1897. It was commonly known as the French 75, simply the 75 and Soixante-Quinze (French for "seventy-five"). The French 75 was designed as an anti-personnel weapon system for delivering large volumes of time-fused shrapnel shells on enemy troops advancing in the open. After 1915 and the onset of trench warfare, other types of battlefield use demanding impact-detonated high-explosive shells prevailed. By 1918 the 75s became the main agents of delivery for toxic gas shells. The 75s also became widely used as truck mounted anti-aircraft artillery. They were the main armament of the Saint-Chamond tank in 1918.

Quick facts: Canon de 75 mm Modele 1897 , Type, Place&nbs...
Canon de 75 mm Modele 1897
Canon de 75 Modèle 1897 on display in Les Invalides
TypeRegimental artillery field gun
Place of originFrance
Service history
In service1898–present (still used as a saluting gun)
Used byFrance
Republic of China
Nazi Germany
Kingdom of Romania
Kingdom of Serbia
United Kingdom
United States
WarsFrench colonial campaigns
Boxer Rebellion,
World War I,
Polish–Soviet War,
Rif War,
Spanish Civil War,
Second Sino Japanese War
World War II
and other conflicts and wars
Production history
DesignerAlbert Deport, Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville and Emile Rimailho.
ManufacturerGovernment arsenals: Puteaux, Bourges, Tarbes, St Etienne
No. built21,000+
Mass1,544 kg (3,404 lb)
Barrel length8 ft 10 in (2.69 m) L/36
Width6 feet 7 inches (2 m)[1]
Height4 feet 7 inches (1.4 m)[1]

ShellFixed QF 75×350 mm R[1]
Shell weightHE – 5.4 kg (12 lb)
HEAT – 5.97–7.25 kg (13.2–16.0 lb)
Shrapnel – 7.24 kg (16 lb)
Caliber75 mm (2.95 in)
BreechNordenfelt eccentric screw[1]
Carriage6 horse team,
Artillery tractor
Elevation−11° to +18°
Rate of fire15–30 rpm burst (dependent on crew training and fatigue) 3–4 rpm sustained (dependent on rate of cooling)
Muzzle velocity500 m/s (1,600 ft/s)
Effective firing range8,500 m (9,300 yd) HE
6,800 m (7,400 yd) shrapnel
Maximum firing range11,000 m (12,000 yd)
Lieutenant-colonel Joseph Albert Deport, the developer of the 75 mm field gun
Rifling of a 75 modèle 1897
Range setting device

The French 75 is widely regarded as the first modern artillery piece.[2][3] It was the first field gun to include a hydro-pneumatic recoil mechanism, which kept the gun's trail and wheels perfectly still during the firing sequence. Since it did not need to be re-aimed after each shot, the crew could reload and fire as soon as the barrel returned to its resting position. In typical use the French 75 could deliver fifteen rounds per minute on its target, either shrapnel or melinite high-explosive, up to about 8,500 m (5.3 mi) away. Its firing rate could even reach close to 30 rounds per minute, albeit only for a very short time and with a highly experienced crew.

At the opening of World War I, in 1914, the French Army had about 4,000 of these field guns in service. By the end of the war about 12,000 had been produced. It was also in service with the American Expeditionary Forces, which had been supplied with about 2,000 French 75 field guns. Several thousand were still in use in the French Army at the opening of World War II, updated with new wheels and tires to allow towing by trucks rather than by horses. The French 75 set the pattern for almost all early-20th century field pieces, with guns of mostly 75 mm forming the basis of many field artillery units into the early stages of World War II.