China and the United Nations

History of China's participation in the UN / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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China is one of the charter members of the United Nations and is one of five permanent members of its Security Council.

Quick facts: United Nations membership, Represented by, Me...
People's Republic of China
Flag_of_the_United_Nations.svg Flag_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China.svg
United Nations membership
Represented by
MembershipFull member
Since24 October 1945 (1945-10-24)
UNSC seatPermanent
Permanent RepresentativeZhang Jun

One of the victorious Allies of World War II (the Chinese theatre of which was the Second Sino-Japanese War), the Republic of China (ROC) joined the UN upon its founding in 1945. The subsequent resumption of the Chinese Civil War between the government of Republic of China and the rebel forces of the Chinese Communist Party, led to the latter's victory on the mainland and the establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949. Nearly all of Mainland China was soon under its control[note 1] and the ROC government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The One-China policy advocated by both governments[1] dismantled the solution of dual representation but, amid the Cold War and Korean War, the United States and its allies opposed the replacement of the ROC at the United Nations until 1971, although they were persuaded to pressure the government of the ROC to accept international recognition of Mongolia's independence in 1961. The PRC sought to be recognized by the United Nations since the 1950s,[2] but at least until 1961, the United States managed to keep the PRC out of the UN.[3] The General Assembly Resolution 1668 which demanded a majority of two thirds for the recognition of new members was adopted[4] in 1961. Canada and other allies of the United States individually shifted their recognitions of China to the PRC, which the US opposed.[5] Some attempted to recognize both Chinas separately which both Chinas opposed declaring each one was the only legitimate representative of China.[5] Annual motions to replace the ROC with the PRC were introduced first by the Soviet Union, then India and also Albania, but these were defeated.[5]

Amid the Sino-Soviet split and Vietnam War, United States President Richard Nixon entered into negotiations with Chinese Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong, initially through a secret 1971 trip undertaken by Henry Kissinger to visit Zhou Enlai. On 25 October 1971, Albania's motion to recognize the People's Republic of China as the sole legal China was passed as General Assembly Resolution 2758. It was supported by most of the communist states (including the Soviet Union) and non-aligned countries (such as India), but also by some NATO countries such as the United Kingdom and France. After the PRC was seated on 15 November 1971, Nixon then personally visited mainland China the next year, beginning the normalization of PRC-USA relations. The Republic of China maintained the view it was the sole legitimate representative of China until 1988, but eventually turned to a foreign policy which sought international recognition through a so-called checkbook diplomacy.[1] These moves have been opposed and mostly blocked by the People's Republic of China, forcing the Republic of China to join international organizations under other names, including "Chinese Taipei" at the International Olympic Committee.

The Republic of China's most recent request for admission was turned down in 2007,[6] but a number of European governments—led by the United States—protested to the UN's Office of Legal Affairs to force the global body and its secretary-general to stop using the reference "Taiwan is a part of China".[7]

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