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Contagious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2. The first known case was identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019.[6] The disease quickly spread worldwide, resulting in the COVID-19 pandemic.

Quick facts: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), Other na...
Coronavirus disease 2019
Other namesCOVID, (the) coronavirus
Transmission and life-cycle of SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19
SpecialtyInfectious disease
SymptomsFever, cough, fatigue, shortness of breath, vomiting, loss of taste or smell; some cases asymptomatic[2][3]
ComplicationsPneumonia, sepsis, ARDS, kidney failure, respiratory failure, pulmonary fibrosis, CKS, MIS-C, long COVID
Usual onset2–14 days (typically 5)
after infection
Duration5 days to chronic
Diagnostic methodRTPCR testing, CT scan, rapid antigen test
PreventionVaccination, face coverings, quarantine, social distancing, ventilation, hand washing
TreatmentSymptomatic and supportive
Frequency770,777,632[4] confirmed cases
  • 6,958,486[4] (reported)
  • 17.6–31.4 million[5] (estimated)

The symptoms of COVID‑19 are variable but often include fever,[7] cough, headache,[8] fatigue, breathing difficulties, loss of smell, and loss of taste.[9][10][11] Symptoms may begin one to fourteen days after exposure to the virus. At least a third of people who are infected do not develop noticeable symptoms.[12] Of those who develop symptoms noticeable enough to be classified as patients, most (81%) develop mild to moderate symptoms (up to mild pneumonia), while 14% develop severe symptoms (dyspnea, hypoxia, or more than 50% lung involvement on imaging), and 5% develop critical symptoms (respiratory failure, shock, or multiorgan dysfunction).[13] Older people are at a higher risk of developing severe symptoms. Some people continue to experience a range of effects (long COVID) for years after infection, and damage to organs has been observed.[14] Multi-year studies are underway to further investigate the long-term effects of the disease.[15]

COVID‑19 transmits when infectious particles are breathed in or come into contact with the eyes, nose, or mouth. The risk is highest when people are in close proximity, but small airborne particles containing the virus can remain suspended in the air and travel over longer distances, particularly indoors. Transmission can also occur when people touch their eyes, nose or mouth after touching surfaces or objects that have been contaminated by the virus. People remain contagious for up to 20 days and can spread the virus even if they do not develop symptoms.[16]

Testing methods for COVID-19 to detect the virus's nucleic acid include real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR),[17][18] transcription-mediated amplification,[17][18][19] and reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RTLAMP)[17][18] from a nasopharyngeal swab.[20]

Several COVID-19 vaccines have been approved and distributed in various countries, which have initiated mass vaccination campaigns. Other preventive measures include physical or social distancing, quarantining, ventilation of indoor spaces, use of face masks or coverings in public, covering coughs and sneezes, hand washing, and keeping unwashed hands away from the face. While work is underway to develop drugs that inhibit the virus, the primary treatment is symptomatic. Management involves the treatment of symptoms through supportive care, isolation, and experimental measures.