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Corruption in China

Institutional corruption in the country / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Corruption in China post-1949 refers to the abuse of political power for private ends typically by members of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), who hold the majority of power in the country. Corruption is a very significant problem in China,[1] impacting all aspects of administration, law enforcement,[2] healthcare[3] and education.[4] Since the Chinese economic reforms began, corruption has been attributed to "organizational involution"[5] caused by the market liberalization reforms initiated by Deng Xiaoping. Like other socialist economies that have undertaken economic reforms, such as post-Soviet Eastern Europe and Central Asia, reform-era China has experienced increasing levels of corruption.[6]

Public surveys on the mainland since the late 1980s have shown that corruption is among the top concerns of the general public. According to Yan Sun, Associate Professor of Political Science at the City University of New York, it was cadre corruption, rather than a demand for democracy as such, that lay at the root of the social dissatisfaction that led to the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre.[6] Corruption undermines the legitimacy of the CCP, adds to economic inequality, undermines the environment, and fuels social unrest.[7]

Since the Tiananmen Square protests and massacre, corruption has not slowed as a result of greater economic freedom, but instead has grown more entrenched and severe in its character and scope. Business deals often involve corruption.[citation needed] In popular perception, there are more dishonest CCP officials than honest ones, a reversal of the views held in the first decade of reform of the 1980s.[6] Chinese political scientist Minxin Pei argues that failure to contain widespread corruption is among the most serious threats to China's future economic and political stability.[7] He estimates that bribery, kickbacks, theft, and waste of public funds costs at least three percent of GDP.

Cadre corruption in China has been subject to significant media attention since CCP General Secretary Xi Jinping announced his controversial anti-corruption campaign following the CCP's 18th National Congress which was held in November 2012.[8] Many high ranking government and military officials have been found guilty of corruption because of this campaign.

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