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Pakistan falls under the Golden Crescent, which is one of the two major illicit opium producing centres in Asia. Opium poppy cultivation in Pakistan is estimated to be 800 hectares in 2005 yielding a potential production of 4 metric tons of heroin. Opium is cultivated primarily in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province and Pakistan-Afghanistan border. Until the late 1970s, opium production levels were relatively static; it increased after 1979.
- Veena Kukreja (2003). Contemporary Pakistan: Political Processes, Conflicts, and Crises. SAGE. p. 193. ISBN 0-7619-9683-4.
- P. J. Alexander (2002). Policing India in the New Millennium. Allied Publishers. p. 658. ISBN 81-7764-207-3.
- "CIA World Factbook - Pakistan". CIA World Factbook.
- "Illegal drug trade in Pakistan-Havocscope Black Markets".
- Consular Information Sheet: Pakistan Bureau of Consular Affairs
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