Croatian language

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Croatian (/krˈʃən/ i; hrvatski [xř̩ʋaːtskiː]) is the standardised variety of the Serbo-Croatian pluricentric language[8][9][10][11][12] mainly used by Croats.[13] It is the national official language and literary standard of Croatia, one of the official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, the Serbian province of Vojvodina, the European Union and a recognized minority language elsewhere in Serbia and other neighbouring countries.

Quick facts: Croatian, Pronunciation, Native to, Regi...
Native toCroatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hungary (Bácska), Montenegro (Bay of Kotor), Romania (Caraș-Severin County), Serbia (Vojvodina)
RegionSoutheast Europe
Native speakers
Native: 7 million (including all dialects spoken by Croats) (2011)[1]
L2: 7 million (2011)
Latin (Gaj's alphabet)
Yugoslav Braille
Official status
Official language in
Flag_of_Croatia.svg Croatia
Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina.svg Bosnia and Herzegovina (co-official)
Flag_of_Montenegro.svg Montenegro (co-official)[3]
Flag_of_Serbia.svg Serbia (in Vojvodina)
Flag_of_Austria.svg Austria (in Burgenland)
Flag_of_Europe.svg European Union
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated byInstitute of Croatian Language and Linguistics
Language codes
ISO 639-1hr
ISO 639-2hrv
ISO 639-3hrv
Linguaspherepart of 53-AAA-g
States and regions which recognize Croatian as (co-)official (dark red) or minority language (light red).
Croatian is not endangered according to the classification system of the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

In the mid-18th century, the first attempts to provide a Croatian literary standard began on the basis of the Neo-Shtokavian dialect that served as a supraregional lingua franca – pushing back regional Chakavian, Kajkavian, and Shtokavian vernaculars.[14] The decisive role was played by Croatian Vukovians, who cemented the usage of Ijekavian Neo-Shtokavian as the literary standard in the late 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, in addition to designing a phonological orthography.[15] Croatian is written in Gaj's Latin alphabet.[16]

Besides the Shtokavian dialect, on which Standard Croatian is based, there are two other main dialects spoken on the territory of Croatia, Chakavian and Kajkavian. These dialects, and the four national standards, are usually subsumed under the term "Serbo-Croatian" in English, though this term is controversial for native speakers,[17] and paraphrases such as "Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian" (BCMS), are therefore sometimes used instead, especially in diplomatic circles.