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Delhi Sultanate

1206–1526 empire in the Indian subcontinent / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The Delhi Sultanate or the Sultanate of Delhi was a late medieval Indian sultanate[11] based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent, for 320 years (1206–1526).[12][13] Following the invasion of South Asia by the Ghurid dynasty, five largely unrelated dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty (1206–1290), the Khalji dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414),[14] the Sayyid dynasty (1414–1451), and the Lodi dynasty (1451–1526). It covered large swaths of territory in modern-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh as well as some parts of southern Nepal.[15]

Quick facts: Sultanate of Delhiسلطنت دهلی (Persian) Salṯan...
Sultanate of Delhi
سلطنت دهلی (Persian)
Flag of Delhi Sultanate
Flag of the Delhi Sultanate according to the contemporary Catalan Atlas (c. 1375).[1][2][3]
Delhi Sultanate at its greatest extent, under the Tughlaq dynasty, 1330–1335.
Delhi Sultanate at its greatest extent, under the Tughlaq dynasty, 1330–1335.[4][5]
Common languagesPersian (official and court language)[6]
Hindavi (semi-official between 1451 and 1526)[7]
State religion
Sunni Islam
Hinduism (majority), Jainism, Buddhism, Christianity, Zoroastrianism
Qutubuddin Aibak (first)
Ibrahim Lodi (last)
Yaqut-i-Mustasimi (first)
Khwaja Jahan (last) [8]
LegislatureCorps of Forty
Historical eraMedieval India
12 June 1206
21 April 1526
3,200,000[10] km2 (1,200,000 sq mi)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Blank.png Ghurid dynasty
Blank.png Gahadavala
Blank.png Chandela dynasty
Blank.png Paramara dynasty
Blank.png Deva dynasty
Blank.png Sena dynasty
Blank.png Seuna (Yadava) dynasty
Blank.png Kakatiya dynasty
Blank.png Vaghela dynasty
Blank.png Yajvapala dynasty
Blank.png Chahamanas of Ranastambhapura
Blank.png Pithipatis of Bodh Gaya
Mughal Empire Blank.png
Bengal Sultanate Blank.png
Bahamani Sultanate Blank.png
Gujarat Sultanate Blank.png
Malwa Sultanate Blank.png
Madurai Sultanate Blank.png
Vijayanagara Empire Blank.png
Today part ofBangladesh

The foundation of the Sultanate was laid by the Ghurid conqueror Muhammad Ghori who routed the Rajput Confederacy led by Ajmer ruler Prithviraj Chauhan in 1192 near Tarain, after suffering a reverse against them earlier.[16] As a successor to the Ghurid dynasty, the Delhi Sultanate was originally one among a number of principalities ruled by the Turkic slave-generals of Muhammad Ghori, including Taj al-Din Yildiz, Qutb al-Din Aibak, Bahauddin Tughril and Nasir ad-Din Qabacha, that had inherited and divided the Ghurid territories amongst themselves.[17] Khalji and Tughlaq rule ushered a new wave of rapid and ceaseless Muslim conquests deep into South India.[18][19][20] The sultanate finally reached the peak of its geographical reach during the Tughlaq dynasty, occupying most of the Indian subcontinent under Muhammad bin Tughluq. A major political transformation occurred across Northern India, triggered by Central Asian conqueror Tamerlane's devastating raid on Delhi in 1398, followed soon afterwards by the reemergence of rival Hindu powers such as Vijayanagara and Mewar asserting independence, and new Muslim sultanates such as the Bengal and Bahmani Sultanates breaking off.[21][22] In 1526, Timurid ruler Babur invaded northern India and conquered the Sultanate, leading to its succession by the Mughal Empire.

The establishment of the Sultanate drew the Indian subcontinent more closely into international and multicultural Islamic social and economic networks,[23] as seen concretely in the development of the Hindustani language[24] and Indo-Islamic architecture.[25][26] It was also one of the few powers to repel attacks by the Mongols (from the Chagatai Khanate)[27] and saw the enthronment of one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultan, who reigned from 1236 to 1240.[28] Bakhtiyar Khalji's annexations involved a large-scale desecration of Hindu and Buddhist temples[29] (contributing to the decline of Buddhism in East India and Bengal),[30][31] and the destruction of universities and libraries.[32][33] Mongolian raids on West and Central Asia set the scene for centuries of migration of fleeing soldiers, intelligentsia, mystics, traders, artists, and artisans from those regions into the subcontinent, thereby establishing Islamic culture there.[34][35]