Species of wheat used for food / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Durum wheat[2] (/ˈdjʊərəm/), also called pasta wheat[3] or macaroni wheat (Triticum durum or Triticum turgidum subsp. durum),[4] is a tetraploid species of wheat.[5] It is the second most cultivated species of wheat after common wheat, although it represents only 5% to 8% of global wheat production.[6] It was developed by artificial selection of the domesticated emmer wheat strains formerly grown in Central Europe and the Near East around 7000 BC, which developed a naked, free-threshing form.[7] Like emmer, durum wheat is awned (with bristles). It is the predominant wheat that grows in the Middle East.

Quick facts: Durum, Scientific classification , Binomial n...
Durum wheat
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Subfamily: Pooideae
Genus: Triticum
T. durum
Binomial name
Triticum durum
    • Triticum accessorium Flaksb. nom. inval.
    • Triticum alatum Peterm.
    • Triticum algeriense Desf. ex Mert. & W.D.J.Koch nom. inval.
    • Triticum bauhinii Lag.
    • Triticum brachystachyum Lag. ex Schult. & Schult.f. nom. inval.
    • Triticum candissimum Bayle-Bar.
    • Triticum caucasicum Flaksb. nom. inval.
    • Triticum cevallos Lag.
    • Triticum cochleare Lag.
    • Triticum densiusculum Flaksb. nom. inval.
    • Triticum fastuosum Lag.
    • Triticum hordeiforme Host
    • Triticum laxiusculum Flaksb. nom. inval.
    • Triticum longisemineum Flaksb. nom. inval.
    • Triticum maurorum Sennen nom. inval.
    • Triticum molle Roem. & Schult. nom. inval.
    • Triticum orientale Flaksb. nom. inval.
    • Triticum platystachyum Lag.
    • Triticum pruinosum Hornem.
    • Triticum pyramidale Percival
    • Triticum rarum Flaksb. nom. inval.
    • Triticum rimpaui Mackey
    • Triticum siculum Roem. & Schult.
    • Triticum tanaiticum Flaksb. nom. inval.
    • Triticum tiflisiense Flaksb. nom. inval.
    • Triticum tomentosum Bayle-Bar.
    • Triticum transcaucasicum Flaksb. nom. inval.
    • Triticum trevisium Desv. nom. inval.
    • Triticum venulosum Ser.
    • Triticum villosum Host

Durum in Latin means "hard", and the species is the hardest of all wheats. This refers to the resistance of the grain to milling, in particular of the starchy endosperm, implying dough made from its flour is weak or "soft". This makes durum favorable for semolina and pasta and less practical for flour, which requires more work than with hexaploid wheats like common bread wheats. Despite its high protein content, durum is not a strong wheat in the sense of giving strength to dough through the formation of a gluten network. Durum contains 27% extractable wet gluten, about 3% higher than in common wheat (T. aestivum L.).[8]