Viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Ebola, also known as Ebola virus disease (EVD) and Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), is a viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and other primates, caused by ebolaviruses. Symptoms typically start anywhere between two days and three weeks after becoming infected with the virus. The first symptoms are usually fever, sore throat, muscle pain, and headaches. These are usually followed by vomiting, diarrhoea, rash and decreased liver and kidney function, at which point, some people begin to bleed both internally and externally. The disease kills between 25% and 90% of those infected – about 50% on average. Death is often due to shock from fluid loss, and typically occurs between six and 16 days after the first symptoms appear. Early treatment of symptoms increases the survival rate considerably compared to late start. An Ebola vaccine was approved by the US FDA in December 2019.
|Other names||Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF), Ebola virus disease|
|Two nurses standing near Mayinga N'Seka, a nurse with Ebola virus disease in the 1976 outbreak in Zaire. N'Seka died a few days later.|
|Symptoms||Fever, sore throat, muscular pain, headaches, diarrhoea, bleeding|
|Complications||shock from fluid loss|
|Usual onset||Two days to three weeks post exposure|
|Causes||Ebolaviruses spread by direct contact|
|Diagnostic method||Finding the virus, viral RNA, or antibodies in blood|
|Differential diagnosis||Malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis, other viral haemorrhagic fevers|
|Prevention||Coordinated medical services, careful handling of bushmeat|
The virus spreads through direct contact with body fluids, such as blood from infected humans or other animals, or from contact with items that have recently been contaminated with infected body fluids. There have been no documented cases, either in nature or under laboratory conditions, of the disease spreading through the air between humans or other primates. After a person recovers from Ebola, their semen or breast milk may continue to carry the virus for anywhere between several weeks to several months. Fruit bats are believed to be the normal carrier in nature; they are able to spread the virus without being affected by it. The symptoms of Ebola may resemble those of several other diseases, including malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis and other viral hemorrhagic fevers. Diagnosis is confirmed by testing blood samples for the presence of viral RNA, viral antibodies or the virus itself.
Control of outbreaks requires coordinated medical services and community engagement, including rapid detection, contact tracing of those exposed, quick access to laboratory services, care for those infected, and proper disposal of the dead through cremation or burial. Samples of body fluids and tissues from people with the disease should be handled with extreme caution. Prevention measures include wearing proper protective clothing and washing hands when around a person with the disease, and limiting the spread of the disease from infected animals to humans – by wearing protective clothing while handling potentially infected bushmeat, and by cooking bushmeat thoroughly before eating it. An Ebola vaccine was approved by the US FDA in December 2019. While there is no approved treatment for Ebola as of 2019[update], two treatments (atoltivimab/maftivimab/odesivimab and ansuvimab) are associated with improved outcomes. Supportive efforts also improve outcomes. These include oral rehydration therapy (drinking slightly sweetened and salty water) or giving intravenous fluids, and treating symptoms. In October 2020, atoltivimab/maftivimab/odesivimab (Inmazeb) was approved for medical use in the United States to treat the disease caused by Zaire ebolavirus.