Electrical grid

Interconnected network for delivering electricity from suppliers to consumers / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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An electrical grid is an interconnected network for electricity delivery from producers to consumers. Electrical grids vary in size and can cover whole countries or continents. It consists of:[1]

General layout of electricity networks. Voltages and depictions of electrical lines are typical for Germany and other European systems.

Grids are nearly always synchronous, meaning all distribution areas operate with three phase alternating current (AC) frequencies synchronized (so that voltage swings occur at almost the same time). This allows transmission of AC power throughout the area, connecting a large number of electricity generators and consumers and potentially enabling more efficient electricity markets and redundant generation.

The combined transmission and distribution network is part of electricity delivery, known as the "power grid" in North America, or just "the grid." In the United Kingdom, India, Tanzania, Myanmar, Malaysia and New Zealand, the network is known as the National Grid.

Although electrical grids are widespread, as of 2016, 1.4 billion people worldwide were not connected to an electricity grid.[2] As electrification increases, the number of people with access to grid electricity is growing. About 840 million people (mostly in Africa) had no access to grid electricity in 2017, down from 1.2 billion in 2010.[3]

Electrical grids can be prone to malicious intrusion or attack; thus, there is a need for electric grid security. Also as electric grids modernize and introduce computer technology, cyber threats start to become a security risk.[4] Particular concerns relate to the more complex computer systems needed to manage grids.[5]

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