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The First Czechoslovak Republic (Czech: První československá republika, Slovak: Prvá československá republika), often colloquially referred to as the First Republic (Czech: První republika, Slovak: Prvá republika), was the first Czechoslovak state that existed from 1918 to 1938, a union of ethnic Czechs and Slovaks. The country was commonly called Czechoslovakia (Czech and Slovak: Československo), a compound of Czech and Slovak; which gradually became the most widely used name for its successor states. It was composed of former territories of Austria-Hungary, inheriting different systems of administration from the formerly Austrian (Bohemia, Moravia, a small part of Silesia) and Hungarian territories (mostly Upper Hungary and Carpathian Ruthenia).
Československá republika (Czech)
|Motto: Pravda vítězí / Pravda víťazí|
|Anthem: ’Kde domov můj’ (Czech)|
’Where my home is’
’Nad Tatrou sa blýska’ (Slovak)
’Lightning Over the Tatras’
and largest city
|Government||Unitary parliamentary republic|
• 1918–1919 (first)
• 1938 (last)
|Chamber of Deputies|
|Historical era||Interwar period|
|18 October 1918|
|28 October 1918|
|29 February 1920|
|30 September 1938|
|140,800 km2 (54,400 sq mi)|
|Today part of|
After 1933, Czechoslovakia remained the only de facto functioning democracy in Central Europe, organized as a parliamentary republic. Under pressure from its Sudeten German minority, supported by neighbouring Nazi Germany, Czechoslovakia was forced to cede its Sudetenland region to Germany on 1 October 1938 as part of the Munich Agreement. It also ceded southern parts of Slovakia and Carpathian Ruthenia to Hungary and the Trans-Olza region in Silesia to Poland. This, in effect, ended the First Czechoslovak Republic. It was replaced by the Second Czechoslovak Republic, which lasted less than half a year before Germany occupied the rest of Czechoslovakia in March 1939.
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