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First Czechoslovak Republic

1918–1938 republic in Central/Eastern Europe / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The First Czechoslovak Republic (Czech: První československá republika, Slovak: Prvá československá republika), often colloquially referred to as the First Republic (Czech: První republika, Slovak: Prvá republika), was the first Czechoslovak state that existed from 1918 to 1938, a union of ethnic Czechs and Slovaks. The country was commonly called Czechoslovakia (Czech and Slovak: Československo), a compound of Czech and Slovak; which gradually became the most widely used name for its successor states. It was composed of former territories of Austria-Hungary, inheriting different systems of administration from the formerly Austrian (Bohemia, Moravia, a small part of Silesia) and Hungarian territories (mostly Upper Hungary and Carpathian Ruthenia).

Quick facts: Czechoslovak RepublicČeskoslovenská republika...
Czechoslovak Republic
Československá republika (Czech)
Motto: Pravda vítězí / Pravda víťazí
"Truth prevails"
Anthem: Kde domov můj (Czech)
’Where my home is’

Nad Tatrou sa blýska (Slovak)
’Lightning Over the Tatras’
The Czechoslovak Republic in 1938
The Czechoslovak Republic in 1938
and largest city
Official languagesCzechoslovak[1]
Common languages
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
Tomáš Masaryk
Edvard Beneš
Prime Minister 
 1918–1919 (first)
Karel Kramář
 1938 (last)
Jan Syrový
LegislatureNational Assembly
Chamber of Deputies
Historical eraInterwar period
18 October 1918
28 October 1918
29 February 1920
30 September 1938
140,800 km2 (54,400 sq mi)
CurrencyCzechoslovak koruna
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag_of_the_Habsburg_Monarchy.svg Austria-Hungary
Second Czechoslovak Republic Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic.svg
Reichsgau Sudetenland Flag_of_Germany_%281935%E2%80%931945%29.svg
Kingdom of Hungary Flag_of_Hungary_%281915-1918%2C_1919-1946%29.svg
Second Polish Republic Flag_of_Poland_%281927%E2%80%931980%29.svg
Today part of

After 1933, Czechoslovakia remained the only de facto functioning democracy in Central Europe, organized as a parliamentary republic. Under pressure from its Sudeten German minority, supported by neighbouring Nazi Germany, Czechoslovakia was forced to cede its Sudetenland region to Germany on 1 October 1938 as part of the Munich Agreement. It also ceded southern parts of Slovakia and Carpathian Ruthenia to Hungary and the Trans-Olza region in Silesia to Poland. This, in effect, ended the First Czechoslovak Republic. It was replaced by the Second Czechoslovak Republic, which lasted less than half a year before Germany occupied the rest of Czechoslovakia in March 1939.

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