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French Algeria

French colony and later territory in Northern Africa from 1830 to 1962 / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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French Algeria (French: Alger until 1839, then Algérie afterwards;[1] unofficially Algérie française,[2][3] Arabic: الجزائر المستعمرة), also known as Colonial Algeria, was the period of Algerian history when the country was a colony and later an integral part of France. French rule in the region began after the successful French invasion of Algeria and lasted until the end of the Algerian War leading to its independence in 1962. After being a French colony from 1830 to 1848, Algeria was a part of France from 4 November 1848 when the Constitution of French Second Republic took effect until its independence on 5 July 1962.

Quick facts: French AlgeriaAlgérie française (French)...
French Algeria
Algérie française (French)
الجزائر المستعمرة (Arabic)
Flag of Algeria
Anthem: La Parisienne (1830–1848)
Le Chant des Girondins (1848–1852)
Partant pour la Syrie (1852–1870)
La Marseillaise (1870–1962)
Official Arabic seal of the Governor General of Algeria
Chronological map of French Algeria's evolution
Chronological map of French Algeria's evolution
French colony
Part of France
and largest city
Official languagesFrench
Common languages
GovernmentFrench Department
Governor General 
 1830 (first)
Louis-Auguste-Victor Bourmont
 1962 (last)
Christian Fouchet
LegislatureAlgerian Assembly [fr]
5 July 1830
5 July 1962
2,381,741 km2 (919,595 sq mi)
CurrencyBudju (1830–1848)
(Algerian) Franc (1848–1962)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag_of_the_Regency_of_Algiers.svg Regency of Algiers
Flag_of_the_Emirate_of_Mascara.svg Emirate of Abdelkader
Drapeau_des_seigneurs_de_la_Medjana.png Kingdom of Beni Abbas
Flag_of_Kel_Ahaggar.svg Kel Ahaggar
Algeria Flag_of_Algeria.svg

As a part of France in the past, Algeria became a destination for hundreds of thousands of European immigrants known as colons, and later as pieds-noirs. However, the indigenous Muslim population remained the majority of the territory's population throughout its history. It is estimated that the native Algerian population fell by up to one-third between 1830 and 1875 due to warfare, disease and starvation.[4] Gradually, dissatisfaction among the Muslim population due to their lack of political and economic freedom fueled calls for greater political autonomy, and eventually independence from France.[5] Tensions between the two groups came to a head in 1954, when the first violent events began of what was later called the Algerian War, characterised by guerrilla warfare and crimes against humanity used by the French in order to stop the revolt. The war ended in 1962, when Algeria gained independence following the Evian agreements in March 1962 and the self-determination referendum in July 1962.

During its last years of being part of France, Algeria was a founding member of the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community.[6]

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