Politics of Poland

Overview of politics in Poland / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The Government of Poland takes the form of a unitary parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the President is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government.[1][2] However, its form of government has also been identified as semi-presidential.[3][4][5][6]

Quick facts: Politics of Poland Polityka polska (Polish),...
Politics of Poland

Polityka polska (Polish)
Herb_Polski.svg
Polity type
Constitution1997 Constitution of Poland
Legislative branch
NameParliament
TypeBicameral
Meeting placeSejm and Senate Complex of Poland
Upper house
NameSenate of Poland
Presiding officerTomasz Grodzki, Marshal of the Senate
AppointerFirst-past-the-post
Lower house
NameSejm
Presiding officerElżbieta Witek, Marshal of the Sejm
AppointerOpen-list proportional representation in 41 constituencies (5% national election threshold)
Executive branch
Head of State
TitlePresident
CurrentlyAndrzej Duda
AppointerDirect popular vote
Head of Government
TitlePrime Minister
CurrentlyMateusz Morawiecki
AppointerPresident
Cabinet
NameGovernment of the Republic of Poland
Current cabinetCabinet of Mateusz Morawiecki
LeaderPrime Minister
Deputy leaderPiotr Gliński, Deputy Prime Minister
AppointerPresident
HeadquartersSejm and Senate Complex of Poland
Ministries37
Judicial branch
NameJudiciary of Poland
Constitutional Tribunal
Chief judgeJulia Przyłębska
Close

Executive power is exercised, within the framework of a multi-party system, by the President and the Government, which consists of the Council of Ministers led by the Prime Minister. Its members are typically chosen from the majority party or coalition, in the lower house of parliament (the Sejm), although exceptions to this rule are not uncommon. The government is formally announced by the President, and must pass a motion of confidence in the Sejm within two weeks.

Legislative power is vested in the two chambers of parliament, Sejm and Senate. Members of Sejm are elected by proportional representation, with the proviso that non-ethnic-minority parties must gain at least 5% of the national vote to enter the lower house. Currently five parties are represented. Parliamentary elections occur at least every four years.

The president, as the head of state, is the supreme commander of the Armed Forces, has the power to veto legislation passed by parliament, which may be overridden by a majority of three fifths, and can dissolve the parliament under certain conditions.[4][5][6] Presidential elections occur every five years. When a majority of voters support the same candidate, that candidate is declared the winner, while when there is no majority, the top two candidates participate in a runoff election.

The political system is defined in the Polish Constitution, which also guarantees a wide range of individual freedoms. The judicial branch plays a minor role in politics, apart from the Constitutional Tribunal, which can annul laws that violate the freedoms guaranteed in the constitution.