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The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom or simply Greco-Bactria was a Hellenistic-era Greek state, and along with the Indo-Greek Kingdom, the easternmost part of the Hellenistic world in Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent. It was founded in 256 BC by the Seleucid satrap Diodotus I Soter and lasted until its fall c. 120 BC with some cities still controlled by Greek kings as Hermaeus Soter (90-70 BC) in what is today Kabul. It was ruled by the Diodotid dynasty and the rival Euthydemid dynasty.
|256 BC–c. 120 BC|
|Common languages||Koine Greek (official)|
Ancient Iranian religion
• 256–239 BC
|Diodotus I (first)|
• 117–100 BC
|Heliocles I (last)|
|c. 120 BC|
|184 BC||2,500,000 km2 (970,000 sq mi)|
It covered much of present-day Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan, and some parts of Iran and Pakistan. An extension further east, with military campaigns and settlements, had most likely reached the borders of the Qin State in 230 BC. The capitals of Ai-Khanum and Bactra were among the largest and richest cities of antiquity; indeed, Bactria was itself known as the land of a thousand golden cities. The Indo-Greek Kingdoms, as Bactrian successor states, would last until 10 AD.