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HMS Achates (H12)

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Achates after having 'A' gun replaced by a Hedgehog anti-submarine mortar
History
United Kingdom
Name: Achates
Ordered: 6 March 1928
Builder: John Brown & Company, Clydebank
Yard number: 526
Laid down: 11 September 1928
Launched: 4 October 1929
Commissioned: 27 March 1930
Motto: Fidus Achates (Latin: "Faithful Achates")
Fate: Sunk, Battle of the Barents Sea, 31 December 1942
General characteristics (as built)
Class and type: A-class destroyer
Displacement:
Length: 323 ft (98 m) (o/a)
Beam: 32 ft 3 in (9.83 m)
Draught: 12 ft 3 in (3.73 m)
Installed power:
Propulsion: 2 × shafts; 2 × geared steam turbines
Speed: 35 knots (65 km/h; 40 mph)
Range: 4,800 nmi (8,900 km; 5,500 mi) at 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph)
Complement: 134; 140 (1940)
Armament:

HMS Achates was an A-class destroyer built for the Royal Navy during the late 1920s. Completed in 1930, she initially served with the Mediterranean Fleet. She was sunk on 31 December 1942 during the Battle of the Barents Sea.

Design and description

In the mid-1920s, the RN ordered two destroyers from two different builders, Ambuscade, built by Yarrow, and Amazon, built by Thornycroft, incorporating the lessons learned from World War I, as prototypes for future classes. The A-class destroyers were based on Amazon, slightly enlarged and carrying two more torpedo tubes.[1] They displaced 1,350 long tons (1,370 t) at standard load and 1,773 long tons (1,801 t) at deep load. The ships had an overall length of 323 feet (98.5 m), a beam of 32 feet 3 inches (9.83 m) and a draught of 12 feet 3 inches (3.73 m).[2] Acasta was powered by a pair of Brown-Curtis geared steam turbines,[3] each driving one shaft, using steam provided by three Admiralty 3-drum boilers. The turbines developed a total of 34,000 shaft horsepower (25,000 kW) and gave a speed of 35 knots (65 km/h; 40 mph). During her sea trials, she reached a maximum speed of 35.5 knots (65.7 km/h; 40.9 mph) from 34,596 shp (25,798 kW). The ships carried enough fuel oil to give them a range of 4,800 nautical miles (8,900 km; 5,500 mi) at 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph). The complement of the A-class ships was 134 officers and ratings and increased to 143 by 1940.[4]

Their main armament consisted of four QF 4.7-inch (120 mm) Mk IX guns in single mounts, in two superfiring pairs in front of the bridge and aft of the superstructure. For anti-aircraft (AA) defence, they had two 40-millimetre (1.6 in) QF 2-pounder Mk II AA guns mounted on a platform between their funnels. The ships were fitted with two above-water quadruple mounts for 21-inch (533 mm) torpedoes. Carrying the minesweeping paravanes on the quarterdeck limited depth charge chutes to three with two depth charges provided for each chute.[3] The A-class destroyers were given space for an ASDIC system, but it was not initially fitted.[5]

Ship history

Battle of the Denmark Strait

In early May 1941, the British Admiralty was on the alert that the German battleship Bismarck might attempt to break out into the North Atlantic, so Achates was ordered to Scapa Flow for possible deployment against the Germans. On 22 May, just after midnight, Achates sailed along with the destroyers Electra, Antelope, Anthony, Echo, and Icarus, escorting the battlecruiser Hood and the battleship Prince of Wales to cover the northern approaches. The intention was that the force would refuel in Hvalfjord, Iceland, and then sail again to watch the Denmark Strait.

On the evening of 23 May, weather started getting bad. At 2055 hrs., Admiral Lancelot Holland aboard Hood signaled the destroyers "If you are unable to maintain this speed I will have to go on without you. You should follow at your best speed." At 0215 on the morning of 24 May, the destroyers were ordered to spread out at 15 mi (24 km) intervals to search to the north. At about 0535, the German forces were sighted by Hood, and shortly after, the Germans sighted the British ships. Firing commenced at 0552. At 0601, Hood suffered a massive explosion, sinking the ship within two minutes.

Electra and the other destroyers were about 60 mi (97 km) away at the time. Upon hearing that Hood had sunk, Electra raced to the area, arriving about two hours after Hood went under. They were expecting to find many survivors, and rigged scrambling nets and heaving lines, and placed life belts on the deck where they could be quickly thrown in. From the 94 officers and 1,321 enlisted men who were aboard Hood, only three survivors were found. Electra rescued these survivors, and continued searching. Shortly thereafter, Icarus and Anthony joined in and the three ships searched the area for more survivors. No more were found, only driftwood, debris, and a desk drawer filled with documents. After several hours searching, they left the area.

Kirkenes and Torch

In July 1941, while taking position in the screen of carriers preparing for the air strike against Kirkenes/Petsamo, Achates was mined and severely damaged, but managed to make port for repairs.

On 8 November 1942, while deployed off Oran, Algeria for operation "Torch", Achates detected, and attacked the Vichy French submarine Argonaute, which had sortied to contest the Allied landings in the area. Achates attack on Argonaute, saw the rise of oil to the surface of the sea and huge air bubbles, as well as debris from both inside, and outside the submarine.[6] Following this, at a later point, HMS Westcott made a further attack, hence both ships were credited with her demise.

Battle of the Barents Sea

On 31 December 1942, Achates was on escort duty protecting the convoy JW 51B en route from Loch Ewe to Murmansk when she was sunk in the Barents Sea

The German heavy cruiser Admiral Hipper, pocket battleship Lützow and six large destroyers had been ordered to attack and destroy the convoy. Despite being heavily outgunned the escort, under the command of Captain R. St. Vincent Sherbrooke, beat off the attack and not one merchant vessel was lost.

At 11:15, Achates was laying smoke to protect the convoy when she was hit by gunfire from Admiral Hipper, killing the commanding officer, Lt Cdr Johns, and forty crew. The First Lieutenant, Lt L. E. Peyton-Jones, took over command and, despite having sustained severe damage in the shelling, Achates continued her smoke screen operation. At 13:30 she went down 135 nautical miles (250 km; 155 mi) ESE of Bear Island. 113 seamen were lost and 81 were rescued, one of whom later died on the trawler Northern Gem which had come to the aid of Achates. In response, the light cruiser Sheffield damaged Admiral Hipper, and subsequently sank her escort, Z16 Friedrich Eckoldt.

References

  1. ^ English, p. 14
  2. ^ Whitley, p. 97
  3. ^ a b March, p. 247
  4. ^ March, p. 258
  5. ^ Friedman, p. 197
  6. ^ Peyton-Jones, Loftus E. (2011). Liddle, Peter (ed.). "At Sea Ch.1 COMMANDER LOFTUS E PEYTON-JONES DSO DSC RN". Captured Memories 1930 - 1945: Across the Threshold of War: the Thirties and the War. Barnsley,UK: Pen & Sword Military: 62. ISBN 978-1848842335.

Bibliography

  • Colledge, J. J.; Warlow, Ben (2006) [1969]. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy (Rev. ed.). London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. OCLC 67375475.
  • English, John (1993). Amazon to Ivanhoe: British Standard Destroyers of the 1930s. Kendal, England: World Ship Society. ISBN 0-905617-64-9.
  • Friedman, Norman (2009). British Destroyers From Earliest Days to the Second World War. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-081-8.
  • Haarr, Geirr H. (2010). The Battle for Norway: April – June 1940. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-051-1.
  • Haarr, Geirr H. (2009). The German Invasion of Norway, April 1940. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-310-9.
  • Hodges, Peter; Friedman, Norman (1979). Destroyer Weapons of World War 2. Greenwich: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 978-0-85177-137-3.
  • Lenton, H. T. (1998). British & Empire Warships of the Second World War. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-048-7.
  • March, Edgar J. (1966). British Destroyers: A History of Development, 1892–1953; Drawn by Admiralty Permission From Official Records & Returns, Ships' Covers & Building Plans. London: Seeley Service. OCLC 164893555.
  • Rohwer, Jürgen (2005). Chronology of the War at Sea 1939–1945: The Naval History of World War Two (Third Revised ed.). Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-119-2.
  • Whitley, M. J. (1988). Destroyers of World War Two: An International Encyclopedia. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-326-1.
  • Winser, John de D. (1999). B.E.F. Ships Before, At and After Dunkirk. Gravesend, Kent: World Ship Society. ISBN 0-905617-91-6.
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HMS Achates (H12)
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