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Province of the People's Republic of China / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Hainan (UK: /hˈnæn/, US: /-nɑːn/;[5] Chinese: 海南) is the southernmost province of the People's Republic of China (PRC), consisting of various islands in the South China Sea. The name means "south of the sea", reflecting the island's position south of the Qiongzhou Strait, which separates it from Leizhou Peninsula and the Chinese mainland.

Quick facts: Hainan 海南, Name transcription(s), &n...
Province of Hainan
Name transcription(s)
  Chinese海南省 (Hǎinán Shěng)
  Cantonese JyutpingHoi2naam4 Saang2
  Abbreviation (Qióng / Khêng / King4)
Sanya Nanshan Dongtian Park
Sanya Nanshan Dongtian Park
Location of Hainan within China
Location of Hainan within China
Coordinates: 19°12′N 109°42′E
Guangnan West Circuit988
Hainan Special Administrative Region1944
Incorporation into the PRC1 May 1950
Separation from Guangdong26 April 1988
and largest city
Divisions4 prefectures, 25 counties, 218 townships
  BodyHainan Provincial People's Congress
  CCP SecretaryFeng Fei
  Congress ChairmanFeng Fei
  GovernorLiu Xiaoming
  CPPCC ChairmanLi Rongcan
  Total35,191 km2 (13,587 sq mi)
Highest elevation1,840 m (6,040 ft)
  Density290/km2 (740/sq mi)
  Ethnic compositionHan: 82.6%
Li: 15.84%
Miao: 0.82%
Zhuang: 0.67%
  Languages and dialectsStandard Chinese, Hainanese, Yue, Lingao, Hakka, Hlai, Miao, Tsat
ISO 3166 codeCN-HI
GDP (2021)CN¥647.52 billion
US$100.39 billion (31st)[3]
GDP per capitaCN¥64,230
US$9,958 (25th)
GDP growthIncrease 11.2%
HDI (2018)0.750[4] (high) (19th)
WebsiteEnglish Chinese
Quick facts: Native name 海南岛, Geography, Location, Type, ...
Hainan Island
Native name:
LocationEast Asia
Area33,210 km2 (12,820 sq mi)
Area rank42nd
Length156 km (96.9 mi)
Width170 km (106 mi)
Highest elevation1,840 m (6040 ft)
Highest pointWuzhi Mountain
People's Republic of China
Largest settlementHaikou (pop. 2,873,358)
Republic of China (claimed)
Special Administrative RegionHainan
Populationc. 8,180,000
Ethnic groupsHan, Li, Miao, Zhuang, Utsul
Quick facts: Hainan, Chinese, Literal meaning, Transcripti...
"Hainan" in Chinese characters
Literal meaning"South of the Sea (Qiongzhou Strait)"
Quick facts: Former names, Zhuya, Chinese, Literal meaning...
Former names
Literal meaningPearl Cliffs
Traditional Chinese瓊崖
Simplified Chinese琼崖
Literal meaningJade Cliffs
Traditional Chinese瓊州
Simplified Chinese琼州
Literal meaningJade Prefecture

The province has a land area of 33,920 square kilometers (13,100 sq mi), of which Hainan Island is 32,900 square kilometers (12,700 sq mi) and the rest is over 200 islands scattered across three archipelagos: Zhongsha, Xisha and Nansha. It was part of Guangdong from 1950 to 1988, after which it was made a province of its own and was designated as a special economic zone by Deng Xiaoping, as part of the Chinese economic reform program.

Indigenous peoples such as the Hlai, a Kra–Dai-speaking ethnic group, are native to the island and compose 15% of the population. Their native languages include the Hlai languages. The Hlai are recognized by the Chinese government as one of the country's 56 ethnic groups. The Chinese population, who compose a majority of the population at 82%, speak a wide variety of languages including Standard Chinese, Hainam Min, Yue Chinese, Cantonese, Hakka Chinese, etc.[6] Speakers of Be, despite speaking a Kra-Dai language, are reckoned officially as ethnically Chinese. Hainan is also home to the Jiamao language, of disputed provenance.

There are ten major cities and ten counties in Hainan Province. The capital of the province is Haikou, on the northern coast of Hainan Island, while Sanya is a well-known tourist destination on the southern coast. The other major cities are Wenchang, Sansha, Qionghai, Wanning, Wuzhishan, Dongfang and Danzhou.

According to China's territorial claims, several disputed territories in the South China Sea, including the Spratly Islands (Nansha) and Paracel Islands (Xisha),[7] are administered under Sansha city of the province. However, many of these islands are also claimed and de facto controlled by other countries, such as Philippines and Vietnam.[8]

In 2020, a large-scale plan was announced by the Chinese government to transform the entire island province into a free trade port, with the aim of turning it into the largest free-trade port in the world by 2035. The plan involves building a hub for offshore financing and duty-free shopping, as well as using lower taxes and reduced visa requirements to help draw in foreign businesses and tourists. Moreover, all goods sold from Hainan to other parts of China would be treated as imports from 2025 onward.[9][10][11][12]

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