The Hamburg School of Astrology originated in Hamburg, Germany, and revolved around the research and teachings of surveyor/astrologer/amateur astronomer Alfred Witte. The term Hamburg School as an astrological method originated in 1923 at the Second German Astrological Congress in Leipzig, Germany.
The Hamburg School was established as an Association as "Astrologenverein Hamburger Schule" on October 31, 1925 at 9h45'51" PM (-1 = GMT), in Hamburg/Germany. In 1932 the first partner group was established in Düsseldorf/Germany by Theodor Keysers.
Early collaborators of Alfred Witte were Friedrich Sieggrün and Ludwig Rudolph. In a search for planets beyond Neptune (Pluto had yet to be discovered), Witte claimed four hypothetical trans-Neptunian planets, and in 1927 Sieggrün claimed yet another four. None of the these planets were astronomically verifiable. Witte named his planets Cupido, Hades, Zeus and Kronos. Sieggrün expanded the list planets with Apollon, Admetos, Vulkanus and Poseidon.
Ludwig Rudolph printed and published Witte's claims, the core of which were published in the Rulesbook for Planetary Pictures (Regelwerk für Planetenbilder) in 1928. An increasing amount of the research of the Hamburg School revolved around astrological midpoints and use of the extra planets.
Witte and Rudolph were pursued by the Gestapo as enemies of the Third Reich. Witte committed suicide before he could be sent to a concentration camp, and Rudolph was interned, the Rulebook for Planetary Pictures banned and burned by the Nazis.
Reinhold Ebertin, a student of Hamburg School methods, eliminated the use of the hypothetical planets while maintaining the core teachings of the Hamburg School, renamed it "Cosmobiology" (German: Kosmobiologie), and published it in The Combination of Stellar Influences in 1940, last updated in English in 1972.
After the fall of the Third Reich, the Hamburg School reconvened, and Ludwig Rudolph played the key role in perpetuating the teachings of the Hamburg School. The Hamburg School astrologer Hermann Lefeldt combined Witte's theories with more astrological traditions such as the use of astrological houses. However, other Hamburg practitioners maintained their focus on working only with astrological midpoints , abandoning traditional practices, including the 12 houses and rulerships.
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