Hierarchical File System

Proprietary file system by Apple / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Hierarchical File System (HFS) is a proprietary file system developed by Apple Inc. for use in computer systems running Mac OS. Originally designed for use on floppy and hard disks, it can also be found on read-only media such as CD-ROMs. HFS is also referred to as Mac OS Standard (or HFS Standard), while its successor, HFS Plus, is also called Mac OS Extended (or HFS Extended).

Quick facts: Developer(s), Full name, Introduced, Partitio...
Developer(s)Apple Computer
Full nameHierarchical File System
IntroducedSeptember 17, 1985; 37 years ago (1985-09-17) with System 2.1
Partition identifierApple_HFS (Apple Partition Map)
0xAF (MBR) HFS and HFS+
Directory contentsB-tree
File allocationBitmap
Bad blocksB-tree
Max. volume size2 TB (2 × 10244 bytes)
Max. file size2 GB (2 × 10243 bytes)
Max. number of files65535
Max. filename length31 characters
Allowed characters in filenamesAll 8-bit values except colon ":". Discouraged null and nonprints.
Dates recordedCreation, modification, backup
Date rangeJanuary 1, 1904 - February 6, 2040
Date resolution1s
ForksOnly 2 (data and resource)
AttributesColor (3 bits, all other flags 1 bit), locked, custom icon, bundle, invisible, alias, system, stationery, inited, no INIT resources, shared, desktop
File system permissionsAppleShare
Transparent compressionYes (third-party); Stacker, AutoDoubler, TimesTwo, Now Compress, StuffIt SpaceSaver, Alysis Software products (SuperDisk!, More Disk Space, The Alysis Disk Expander and eDisk), AutoSqueeze
Transparent encryptionNo
Supported operating systemsClassic Mac OS, macOS, Linux, Microsoft Windows (through MacDrive or Boot CampIFS drivers)[citation needed]

With the introduction of Mac OS X 10.6, Apple dropped support for formatting or writing HFS disks and images, which remain supported as read-only volumes.[1] Starting with macOS 10.15, HFS disks can no longer be read.