In biomechanics, Hill's muscle model refers to the 3-element model consisting of a contractile element (CE) in series with a lightly-damped elastic spring element (SE) and in parallel with lightly-damped elastic parallel element (PE). Within this model, the estimated force-velocity relation for the CE element is usually modeled by what is commonly called Hill's equation, which was based on careful experiments involving tetanized muscle contraction where various muscle loads and associated velocities were measured. They were derived by the famous physiologist Archibald Vivian Hill, who by 1938 when he introduced this model and equation had already won the Nobel Prize for Physiology. He continued to publish in this area through 1970. There are many forms of the basic "Hill-based" or "Hill-type" models, with hundreds of publications having used this model structure for experimental and simulation studies. Most major musculoskeletal simulation packages make use of this model.
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