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Hong Kong

City and special administrative region of China / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Hong Kong (US: /ˈhɒŋkɒŋ/ or UK: /hɒŋˈkɒŋ/; Chinese: 香港; Jyutping: hoeng1 gong2, Cantonese: [hœ́ːŋ.kɔ̌ːŋ] ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (abbr. Hong Kong SAR or HKSAR),[lower-alpha 4] is a city and a special administrative region in China. With 7.4 million residents of various nationalities[lower-alpha 5] in a 1,104-square-kilometre (426 sq mi) territory, Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated territories in the world.

Quick facts: Hong Kong香港, Chinese , Cantonese Yale romanis...
Hong Kong
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China
Cantonese Yale romanisation:Jūng'wàh Yàhnmàhn Guhng'wòhgwok Hēunggóng Dahkbiht Hàhngjingkēui
Location of Hong Kong
Location of Hong Kong within China
Sovereign stateChina
British possession26 January 1841
Treaty of Nanking29 August 1842
Convention of Peking24 October 1860
New Territories lease9 June 1898
Imperial Japanese occupation25 December 1941 to 30 August 1945
Redesignated as a British Dependent Territory1 January 1981
Sino-British Joint Declaration19 December 1984
Handover to China1 July 1997
Administrative centreTamar
Largest district
by population
Sha Tin
Official languages
Cantonese[lower-alpha 1]
Traditional Chinese[lower-alpha 2]
English alphabet
Ethnic groups
91.6% Chinese
2.7% Filipino
1.9% Indonesian
0.8% White
0.6% Indian
0.4% Nepalese
2% other[6]
GovernmentDevolved executive-led government within a unitary one-party state[7]
John Lee
Eric Chan
Andrew Leung
Andrew Cheung
LegislatureLegislative Council
National representation
36 deputies
203 delegates[8]
2,754.97[9] km2 (1,063.70 sq mi) (168th)
 Water (%)
(1,640.62 km2;
633.45 sq mi)[9]
1,114.35 km2
(430.25 sq mi)[9]
Highest elevation957 m (3,140 ft)
Lowest elevation0 m (0 ft)
 2023 estimate
Neutral increase 7,498,100[10]
 2021 census
Neutral increase 7,413,070[11]
6,801[12]/km2 (17,614.5/sq mi) (4th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
Increase $548.999 billion[13] (45th)
 Per capita
Increase $72,861[13] (13th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
Increase $385.546 billion[13] (40th)
 Per capita
Increase $51,168[13] (21st)
Gini (2016)Negative increase 53.9[14]
HDI (2021)Increase 0.952[15]
very high · 4th
CurrencyHong Kong dollar (HK$) (HKD)
Time zoneUTC+08:00 (HKT)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Mains electricity220 V–50 Hz
Driving sideleft[lower-alpha 3]
Calling code+852
ISO 3166 code
Internet TLD
Number plate prefixesNone for local vehicles, 粤Z for cross-boundary vehicles

Hong Kong was established as a colony of the British Empire after the Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island in 1841–1842. The colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 and was further extended when the United Kingdom obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. Hong Kong was occupied by Japan from 1941 to 1945 during World War II. The whole territory was transferred from the United Kingdom to China in 1997. Hong Kong maintains separate governing and economic systems from that of mainland China under the principle of "one country, two systems".[lower-alpha 6]

Originally a sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages,[18][19] the territory is now one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports. Hong Kong is the world's fourth-ranked global financial centre, ninth-largest exporter, and eighth-largest importer. Its currency, the Hong Kong dollar, is the ninth most traded currency in the world. Home to the second-highest number of billionaires of any city in the world, Hong Kong has the largest number of ultra high-net-worth individuals.[20] Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, severe income inequality exists among the population. Despite having the largest number of skyscrapers of any city in the world, housing in Hong Kong has been well-documented to experience a chronic persistent shortage.

Hong Kong is a highly developed territory and has a Human Development Index (HDI) of 0.952, ranking fourth in the world. The city has the highest life expectancy in the world, and a public transport rate exceeding 90%.

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