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Hud (surah)

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Sura 11 of the Quran
هُود
Hud
ClassificationMeccan
PositionJuzʼ 11 to 12
Hizb no.22 to 24
No. of Rukus10
No. of verses123
No. of Sajdahsnone

Hud (Arabic: هُود‎, Hūd, "Hud"),[1] is the 11th chapter (Surah)[2] of the Quran with 123 Ayahs (verses). It is about the prophet Hud. Regarding the timing and contextual background of the supposed revelation (asbāb al-nuzūl), it is an earlier "Meccan surah", which means it is believed to have been revealed in Mecca, instead of later in Medina.

Exegesis

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Quran 11 opens with a discussion on the nature of man and the punishment that awaits those who defy God. Thereafter, the main content of the surah is a series of stories of prophets who warned their people to follow God, the people persisting in defying God, and God punishing and killing them.

Verses 11:25 - 11:49

Verses 11:25-49 tell the story of Noah and how his people did not believe his commands to follow God. The unbelievers are drowned in a flood, which includes Noah's son; Noah asks God about this act, but God rebukes Noah as being ignorant and says that Noah's son is "not a member of his family." Surah 66, At-Tahrim, elaborates on this and says that Noah's wife is an unbeliever in hell who was unfaithful to her husband.[1]:11:25-49

Verses 11:50 - 11:60

Verses 11:50-60 deal with the prophet Hud, the namesake of the Surah. He was sent to the ʿĀd, an Omani tribe which according to history crumbled sometime between the 3rd and 6th century AD. The ʿĀd do not believe Hud, and Hud and those who do believe are rescued by God, followed by God inflicting a "dreadful doom" on them so that they were "accursed in the world."

Verses 11:61 - 11:68

Verses 11:61-68 concern the people of Thamud and the prophet Saleh. Saleh tries to convince Thamud to repent, but once more the unbelievers ignore the prophet. Saleh offers a she-camel as an offering of peace, but says that it should be left alone. If anything befalls it, the people will be punished. The camel is hamstrung, Saleh and those who believe are rescued, and the unbelievers are smitten by a "blast from heaven."

Verses 11:69 - 11:84

The Quranic version of the Biblical story of Sodom and Gomorrah is in Verses 11:69-84. Abraham and Sarah are given the news of their son and grandson's forthcoming birth (Isaac and Jacob), after which they plead for mercy for Lot's people. God refuses the request, saying that the punishment cannot be averted. Lot offers his daughters to the men of Sodom, but they respond with disinterest and say "you know what we want."

Verses 11:80 - 11:84

Verses 11:80-84 confirms the Biblical account of homosexuality as being the crime of Lot's people. Angels descend to protect Lot and his daughters, and the city is destroyed by a stone rain. Lot's wife perishes as well.

Verses 11:85 - 11:95

Verse 11:85-95 deal with the prophet Shu'aib sent to Midian. Once more, the people ignore the prophet's warnings; this time, Shu'aib reminds the people of the fate of the people of Noah, Hud, Saleh, and Lot. It doesn't work, and the people spare Shu'aib from death by stoning only because he comes from a powerful clan. Shu'aib and those who believe are rescued by God. Afterward, the unbelievers "[were] seized by a punishment from heaven, and lay overturned in their homes in the morning as though they had not dwelt there at all."

The remaining verses discuss the general theme once more, with occasional references to Moses. The harsh punishment is explained as "We did not wrong them; they wronged themselves." Other gods are decried as false, powerless, and useless. Believers are commanded to walk the straight path and follow God, and those who disbelieve will suffer in Hell.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Ibn Kathir. "Tafsir Ibn Kathir (English): Surah Hud". Quran 4 U. Tafsir. Retrieved 18 December 2019.
  2. ^ Virginia Hooker; Norani Othman (2003). Malaysia: Islam, Society and Politics. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 211. ISBN 978-981-230-161-1.
Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Holy Qur'an (Maulana Muhammad Ali)/11. Hud
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