A lower isolation level increases the ability of many users to access the same data at the same time, but increases the number of concurrency effects (such as dirty reads or lost updates) users might encounter. Conversely, a higher isolation level reduces the types of concurrency effects that users may encounter, but requires more system resources and increases the chances that one transaction will block another.
Isolation is typically defined at database level as a property that defines how or when[clarification needed] the changes made by one operation become visible to others. On older systems, it may be implemented systemically, for example through the use of temporary tables. In two-tier systems, a transaction processing (TP) manager is required to maintain isolation. In n-tier systems (such as multiple websites attempting to book the last seat on a flight), a combination of stored procedures and transaction management is required to commit the booking and send confirmation to the customer.