Japanese invasion of Manchuria

1931–32 Japanese invasion of northeast China prior to the Second Sino-Japanese War / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The Empire of Japan's Kwantung Army invaded Manchuria on 18 September 1931, immediately following the Mukden Incident.[2] At the war's end in February 1932, the Japanese established the puppet state of Manchukuo. Their occupation lasted until the success of the Soviet Union and Mongolia with the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation in mid-August 1945, towards the end of the Second World War.

Japanese invasion of Manchuria
Part of the interwar period
Japanese troops marching into Mukden on September 18, 1931
DateSeptember 18, 1931 – February 28, 1932
(5 months, 1 week and 2 days)

Japanese victory


Flag_of_Japan_%281870%E2%80%931999%29.svg Japan

Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China.svg China
Commanders and leaders
War_flag_of_the_Imperial_Japanese_Army_%281868%E2%80%931945%29.svg Shigeru Honjō
War_flag_of_the_Imperial_Japanese_Army_%281868%E2%80%931945%29.svg Jirō Tamon
War_flag_of_the_Imperial_Japanese_Army_%281868%E2%80%931945%29.svg Hideki Tojo[1]
War_flag_of_the_Imperial_Japanese_Army_%281868%E2%80%931945%29.svg Senjuro Hayashi
Flag_of_Manchukuo.svg Puyi
Flag_of_Manchukuo.svg Zhang Haipeng
Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China_Army.svg Zhang Xueliang
Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China_Army.svg Ma Zhanshan
Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China_Army.svg Feng Zhanhai
Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China_Army.svg Ting Chao
30,000–60,450 men[citation needed] 160,000 men

The South Manchuria Railway Zone and the Korean Peninsula had been under the control of the Japanese Empire since the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905. Japan's ongoing industrialization and militarization ensured their growing dependence on oil and metal imports from the US.[3] The US sanctions which prevented trade with the United States (which had occupied the Philippines around the same time) resulted in Japan furthering its expansion in the territory of China and Southeast Asia.[4] The invasion of Manchuria, or the Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 7 July 1937, are sometimes cited as alternative starting dates for World War II, in contrast with the more commonly accepted date of September 1, 1939.[5]

With the invasion having attracted great international attention, the League of Nations produced the Lytton Commission (headed by British politician Victor Bulwer-Lytton) to evaluate the situation, with the organization delivering its findings in October 1932. Its findings and recommendations that the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo not be recognized and the return of Manchuria to Chinese sovereignty prompted the Japanese government to withdraw from the League entirely.