José de San Martín
Argentine military leader and Libertador (1778–1850) / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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José Francisco de San Martín y Matorras (25 February 1778 – 17 August 1850), known simply as José de San Martín (Spanish pronunciation: [xoˈse ðe san maɾˈtin] (listen)) or the Liberator of Argentina, Chile and Peru, was an Argentine general and the primary leader of the southern and central parts of South America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire who served as the Protector of Peru. Born in Yapeyú, Corrientes, in modern-day Argentina, he left the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata at the early age of seven to study in Málaga, Spain.
José de San Martín
|Member of the Third Triumvirate|
18 April – 20 April 1815
Serving with Matías de Irigoyen and Manuel de Sarratea
|Preceded by||Carlos María de Alvear|
|Succeeded by||José Rondeau|
|Protector of Peru|
28 July 1821 – 20 September 1822
|Governor of Cuyo|
10 August 1814 – 24 September 1816
|Preceded by||Marcos González de Balcarce|
|Succeeded by||Toribio de Luzuriaga|
|Born||25 February 1778|
Yapeyú, Corrientes, Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata (now Argentina)
|Died||17 August 1850 72) (aged|
|Spouse||María de los Remedios de Escalada y la Quintana|
|Children||María de las Mercedes Tomasa de San Martín y Escalada|
|Nickname||The Liberator of America|
|Years of service||1789–1822|
|Rank||lieutenant colonel (the rank that he had in the Spanish army), General of Argentina, Commander-in-Chief of the armies of Chile, Peru and Argentina, Generalissimo|
|Commands||Regiment of Mounted Grenadiers, Army of the North, Army of the Andes, Chilean Army|
In 1808, after taking part in the Peninsular War against France, San Martín contacted South American supporters of independence from Spain in London. In 1812, he set sail for Buenos Aires and offered his services to the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, present-day Argentina. After the Battle of San Lorenzo and time commanding the Army of the North during 1814, he organized a plan to defeat the Spanish forces that menaced the United Provinces from the north, using an alternative path to the Viceroyalty of Peru. This objective first involved the establishment of a new army, the Army of the Andes, in Cuyo Province, Argentina. From there, he led the Crossing of the Andes to Chile, and triumphed at the Battle of Chacabuco and the Battle of Maipú (1818), thus liberating Chile from royalist rule. Then he sailed to attack the Spanish stronghold of Lima, Peru.
On 12 July 1821, after seizing partial control of Lima, San Martín was appointed Protector of Peru, and Peruvian independence was officially declared on 28 July. On 26 July 1822, after a closed-door meeting with fellow libertador Simón Bolívar at Guayaquil, Ecuador, Bolívar took over the task of fully liberating Peru. San Martín unexpectedly left the country and resigned the command of his army, excluding himself from politics and the military, and moved to France in 1824. The details of that meeting would be a subject of debate by later historians.
San Martín is regarded as a national hero of Argentina, Chile, and Peru, a great military commander, and one of the Liberators of Spanish South America. The Order of the Liberator General San Martín (Orden del Libertador General San Martín), created in his honor, is the highest decoration conferred by the Argentine government.