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|Alma mater||University of the Basque Country|
|Modernity, Age of Enlightenment, Romanticism, social philosophy, political philosophy, philosophical anthropology, philosophy of language, ethics, nationalism, Basque literature|
|The State as secular church, morality as a political weapon|
Joxe Azurmendi Otaegi (born 19 March 1941) is a Basque writer, philosopher, essayist and poet. He has published numerous articles and books on ethics, politics, the philosophy of language, technique, Basque literature and philosophy in general.
He is member of Jakin and the director of Jakin irakurgaiak, a publishing house which has published over 40 books under his management. He also collaborated with the Klasikoak publishing firm in the Basque translations of various philosophical works and was one of the founders of Udako Euskal Unibertsitatea (The Basque Summer University). He is currently a Professor of Modern Philosophy and a lecturer at Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea (The University of the Basque Country). In 2010 he was awarded the title "honorary academic" by Euskaltzaindia (The Basque Language Academy).
Azurmendi is an intellectual who studies the problem more than the solution. Azurmendi's essays cover modern European topics in great depth and knowledge. He has incorporated the philosophy and thinking of European thinkers, especially German ones. He often adopts a polemic tone.
At the beginning of the 1960s he joined the cultural movement which grew up around the magazine Jakin, and was in fact the director of the publication when it was prohibited for the first time by Franco's regime. He has collaborated closely and uninterruptedly with the magazine since its restoration. In that publication he has raised the problems of Basque society in the context of European thinkers. During the early 1970s he focused his attention on disseminating basic literature in the Basque language on subjects which were being hotly debated at the time in the Basque Country: nationhood, socialism, internationalism, etc. In the 1980s he began teaching at The University of the Basque Country, and in 1984 he submitted his thesis on Jose Maria Arizmendiarrieta, the founder of the Mondragon cooperative movement, in which he argued that Arizmendiarrieta's project aimed to unite individuals and society under an organisation which combined both socialism and French personalism.
In 1992 he published what was to become his best-known work: Espainolak eta euskaldunak (The Spanish and the Basques). The work, published by Elkar, was written in response to a text by Sánchez-Albornoz which claimed that "The Basques are the last people to be civilised in Spain; they have a thousand years less civilisation than any other people ... They are rough, simple people who nevertheless consider themselves to be the children of God and the heirs to his glory. But they are really nothing more than un-Romanised Spaniards." Azurmendi's essay refuted and dismantled the stereotypes maintained about the Basques by certain Spanish intellectuals.
It was on the threshold of the new millennium, however, that Azurmendi's work reached its height. During the early years of the 21st century he published the trilogy formed by Espainiaren arimaz (About the soul of Spain) (2006, Elkar), Humboldt. Hizkuntza eta pentsamendua (Humboldt. Language and Thought) (2007, UEU) and Volksgeist. Herri gogoa (Volksgeist. National Character) (2008, Elkar). In this trilogy, Joxe Azurmendi reveals some of his most significant thinking.
His work emerged and developed during a period marked by a crisis of culture, politics and values. But it was a crisis that he understood not as something negative, but rather something that opened up a whole new range of possibilities. Consequently, all his thinking is centred around the defence of freedom in every field, but especially in relation to conscience and thinking.
Far from fleeing the crisis, then, his work tries to outline how we can live in this situation. To this end, he adopts a relativist perspective, and given that modernity has left us with no solid base, he fights against the last vestiges of the dogmatism towards which our society tends to lean when in crisis:
" The proclamation of relativism is provocative. ... I am not particularly interested in being an apostle of relativism. But as I come from a dogmatic culture [Franco's regime], I'm allergic to some things. Truth, Reason and absolute correction were Catholic in that culture. Now I hear that postmodern relativism is the cause of the moral misery and the loss of values. It is seen that there is a nostalgia of dogmatic culture, disguised with some democratic and enlightened discourse. That dogmatic culture has relativism as its enemy, for that reason I claim this convicted relativism. But it is not an absolute relativism."
In this sense, for example, he is critical of the modern state, which he accuses of being the new church seeking to control our consciences. He also criticises the exploitation of morality, or in other words, how politicians, instead of solving the problems facing them in their various areas or fields, flee instead to moral ground to hide their responsibilities under the cloak of supposedly absolute moral principles:
"In the mean time, what is the point of repeating the old tale as to what the state is becoming? Once the sour critical analysis of sometime ago (Herbert Marcuse: One-Dimensional Man), the dark negative utopias (Aldous Huxley, George Orwell) and the protest cries (May 68) are forgotten, and with a near lack of the slightest sense of resistance in civil society, the cobweb of power spins peacefully over our heads, all over the place. Even the dressing room."
He has also made an important contribution in questioning the canonical interpretations which have been constructed regarding different issues. Of particular interest, due to his erudition and training in Germany, is his interpretation of the German Enlightenment. In this context he deconstructs the apparent opposition between the French Enlightenment and German Romanticism and proposes a new way of thinking about the different aspects which stem from this opposition. In this way, he defies certain Spanish and French intellectuals (Alain Finkielkraut) and argues that nationalism in fact arose in France (Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau, Ernest Renan) and was later reinterpreted by the German thinkers and romantics. By doing this, he questions the way in which authors such as Goethe, Schiller, Herder or Humboldt are viewed as the fathers of metaphysical nationalism. In this field, the opposition between civic nationalism and ethnic nationalism is deconstructed. Thus, Azurmendi criticizes the essentialist basis of Spanish nationalism and French nationalism that operates under these nation states.
Some of the topics Azurmendi deeply develops in his essays first appeared in his poetry of youth. Azurmendi is within the Basque poetry of the 60s which shows the fight against the tradition, the old faith and the dogmatic certainties:
But we wish to be free
is that my fault?
They tried to give us a tree from Gernika,
a false blank check,
as if the desire to be free were a sin,
but despite that, we, quite simply, wish to be free.
That is what we want, that is all.
This is the latest deception:
they have led us to believe
before from outside and now from within
that it is our responsibility to justify our wish to be free.
Manifestu atzeratua (Belated Manifesto) (1968)
He also dedicates a large part of his work to recovering and reinterpreting Basque thinkers, breaking through and dismantling numerous stereotypes. Of particular interest is his research into Jon Mirande, Orixe, Unamuno and others. He is an author who has worked from within and for Basque culture. He claims to have been influenced by Basque authors from the post-war period, for example, in questions of language. In this field, he has researched other authors also, including Heidegger, Wittgenstein, George Steiner and Humboldt. The fact that his vast oeuvre is all written in the Basque language is clearly consistent with his thinking.
In his language Joxe Azurmendi combines an educated register with colloquial expressions, and his prose is fast, incisive, and ironic. Azurmendi's Basque is modern and standard and he demonstrates great knowledge of the language, and richness and variety of expression.
- 1976: Andima Ibiñagabeitia Award for the work: Espainolak eta euskaldunak
- 1978: Irun Hiria Award for the work: Mirande eta kristautasuna (Mirande and Christianity).
- 1998: Irun Hiria Award for the work: Teknikaren meditazioa (Meditations on Technique).
- 2005: Juan San Martin Award for the work: Humboldt: Hizkuntza eta pentsamendua (Humboldt. Language and Thought).
- 2010: Euskadi Literatura Saria Award, in the essay category, for the work: Azken egunak Gandiagarekin (The last days with Gandiaga).
- 2010: Ohorezko euskaltzaina by Euskaltzaindia.
- 2012: Eusko Ikaskuntza Award.
- 2012: Dabilen Elea Award
- 2014: Digitization of the entire work of Joxe Azurmendi by The Council of Gipuzkoa
- 2015: Euskadi Literatura Saria Award, in the essay category, for the work: Historia, arraza, nazioa (History, race, nation).
The Inguma database of the Basque scientific community contains over 180 texts written by Azurmendi.
- Hizkuntza, etnia eta marxismoa (Language, Ethnics and Marxism) (1971, Euskal Elkargoa)
- Kolakowski (Kołakowski) (1972, EFA): co-author: Joseba Arregui
- Kultura proletarioaz (About Proletarian Culture) (1973, Jakin EFA)
- Iraultza sobietarra eta literatura (The Soviet Revolution and Literature) (1975, Gero Mensajero)
- Gizona Abere hutsa da (Man is Pure Animal) (1975, EFA)
- Zer dugu Orixeren kontra? (What do we have against Orixe?) (1976, EFA Jakin)
- Zer dugu Orixeren alde? (What do we have in favour of Orixe?) (1977, EFA Jakin)
- Artea eta gizartea (Art and Society) (1978, Haranburu)
- Errealismo sozialistaz (About Socialist Realism) (1978, Haranburu)
- Mirande eta kristautasuna (Mirande and Christianity) (1978, GAK)
- Arana Goiriren pentsamendu politikoa (The political thinking of Arana Goiri) (1979, Hordago Lur)
- Nazionalismo Internazionalismo Euskadin (Nationalism Internationalism in the Basque Country) (1979, Hordago Lur)
- PSOE eta euskal abertzaletasuna (The Spanish Socialist Party and Basque Nationalism) (1979, Hordago Lur)
- El hombre cooperativo. Pensamiento de Arizmendiarrieta (Cooperative Man. Arizmendiarrieta's thinking) (1984, Lan Kide Aurrezkia)
- Filosofía personalista y cooperación. Filosofía de Arizmendiarrieta (Personalist philosophy and cooperation. Arizmendiarrieta's philosophy) (1984, EHU)
- Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Spengler, Miranderen pentsamenduan (Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, Spengler in the thinking of Mirande) (1989, Susa)
- Miranderen pentsamendua (Mirande's thinking) (1989, Susa)
- Gizaberearen bakeak eta gerrak (War and Peace according to the Human Animal) (1991, Elkar)
- Espainolak eta euskaldunak (The Spanish and the Basques) (1992, Elkar)
- Karlos Santamaria. Ideiak eta ekintzak (Karlos Santamaria. Ideas and Action) (1994, The Gipuzkoa Provincial Council (unpublished))
- La idea cooperativa: del servicio a la comunidad a su nueva creación (The cooperative idea: from the community service toward its new creation) (1996, Gizabidea Fundazioa)
- Demokratak eta biolentoak (The Democrats and the Violent) (1997, Elkar)
- Teknikaren meditazioa (Meditations on Technique) (1998, Kutxa Fundazioa)
- Oraingo gazte eroak (The Mad Youth of Today) (1998, Enbolike)
- El hecho catalán. El hecho portugués (The Catalan fact. The Portuguese fact) (1999, Hiru)
- Euskal Herria krisian (The Basque Country in Crisis) (1999, Elkar)
- La violencia y la búsqueda de nuevos valores (The violence and the search for new values) (2001, Hiru)
- La presencia de Nietzsche en los pensadores vascos Ramiro de Maeztu y Jon Mirande (The Nietzsche's presence in the Basque thinkers Ramiro de Maeztu and Jon Mirande) (2002, Euskalerriaren Adiskideen Elkartea)
- Etienne Salaberry. Bere pentsamenduaz (1903–2003) (Etienne Salaberry. About his Thinking (1903–2003)) (2003, Egan)
- Espainiaren arimaz (About the soul of Spain) (2006, Elkar)
- Volksgeist. Herri gogoa (Volksgeist. National Character) (2007, Elkar)
- Humboldt. Hizkuntza eta pentsamendua (Humboldt. Language and Thought) (2007, UEU)
- Azken egunak Gandiagarekin (The last days with Gandiaga) (2009, Elkar)
- Bakea gudan (Peace in War) (2012, Txalaparta)
- Barkamena, kondena, tortura (Forgiveness, Condemnation, Torture) (2012, Elkar)
- Karlos Santamariaren pentsamendua (Karlos Santamaria's thinking) (2013, Jakin/EHU)
- Historia, arraza, nazioa (History, race, nation) (2014, Elkar)
- Gizabere kooperatiboaz (About the cooperative Human Animal) (2016, Jakin)
- Hizkuntza, Nazioa, Estatua (Language, Nation, State) (2017, Elkar)
- Beltzak, juduak eta beste euskaldun batzuk (Blacks, Jews and other Basques) (2018, Elkar)
- Pentsamenduaren historia Euskal Herrian (History of thought in the Basque Country) (2020, EHU-Jakin)
- Hitz berdeak (Unrefined words) (1971, EFA)
- XX. mendeko poesia kaierak – Joxe Azurmendi (Books of 20th century poetry – Joxe Azurmendi) (2000, Susa), edition of Koldo Izagirre.
- Joxe Azurmendi: Barkamena, kondena, tortura, Donostia: Elkar, 2012, section: "Kondena, barkamendua, hoben kolektiboa".
- Joxe Azurmendi: Demokratak eta biolentoak, Donostia: Elkar, 1997. p. 101.
- "Azurmendi, Joxe" Archived 23 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Harluxet Hiztegi Entziklopedikoa (Encyclopedia Online in Basque)(Retrieved 29 October 2013)
- Klasikoak Archived 14 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Collection of translations into the Basque language of the classics of universal thought (website of EHU)
- Andoni Olariaga: "Joxe Azurmendi. Askatasunaren pentsalaria" in Alaitz Aizpuru, Eukal Herriko pentsamenduaren gida, Bilbo: UEU, 2012. p. 147
- Joxe Azurmendi at The University of the Basque Country (EHU)
- Joxe Azurmendi at The Basque Language Academy
- Altzibar, Xabier. "The Essay in Basque" in Mari Jose Olaziregi (ed.), Basque Literary History, Reno, Center for Basque Studies/University of Nevada, pp. 283–84
- Altzibar, Xabier. "The Essay in Basque" in Mari Jose Olaziregi (ed.), Basque Literary History, Reno: Center for Basque Studies/University of Nevada, 2012
- Iturriotz, Ander (2010). "Zergatik Azurmendi?", Hegats, 45: 9–15.
- Preface of Gandiaga in Joxe Azurmendi: Hitz berdeak, Oñati: EFA, 1971
- Sudupe, Pako: 50eko hamarkadako euskal literatura II, Donostia: Utriusque Vasconiae, 2011. p. 283.
- Joxe Azurmendi: Arana Goiri-ren pentsamendu politikoa, Donostia: Hordago Lur, 1979. p. 1.
- Andoni Olariaga: "Joxe Azurmendi. Askatasunaren pentsalaria" in Alaitz Aizpuru, Euskal Herriko pentsamenduaren gida, Bilbo: UEU, 2012. p. 149
- Joxe Azurmendi: Espainolak eta euskaldunak, Donostia: Elkar, 1992. p. 17.
- Joxe Azurmendi: "The Basques are Argonauts with very fragile ships", Interview in Hegats (45), p. 209.
- Joxe Azurmendi: Volksgeist. Herri gogoa, Donostia: Elkar, 2008. p. 129.
- Joxe Azurmendi: Euskal Herria krisian, Donostia: Elkar, 1999. p.119
- Joxe Azurmendi: Historia, arraza, nazioa, Donostia: Elkar, 2014. p. 27.
- Joxe Azurmendi: Espainiaren arimaz, Donostia: Elkar, 2006
- Joxe Azurmendi: Historia, arraza, nazioa, Donostia: Elkar, 2014
- Estankona, I. 2010: "Artean gazte eta berde: Azurmendiren Hitz berdeak eta Manifestu atzeratua", Hegats, 45: 71–83
- Joxe Azurmendi: "Unamunoren atarian" in Euskal Herriko pentsamenduaren gida, Bilbo: UEU, 2012. p. 29.
- Joxe Azurmendi: Bakea Gudan. Unamuno, historia eta karlismoa, Tafalla: Txalaparta, 2012. Azurmendi delves into the thinking of Unamuno, under the pretext of the novel Paz en la guerra by Unamuno, which deals with the last Carlist War and especially with the site of Bilbo. It therefore turned out in an interpretive essay on the conflict Carlism vs. liberalism, or in other words, in an interpretive essay on Basque Country and Modernity. According to Azurmendi Unamuno analyzed and rejected the Basque problem from a 19th-century point of view
- Interview on Unamuno: «Unamuno ez da inoiz liberala izan; antiliberala zen azken fasean ere», Berria, 31 May 2012 (Retrieved 29 October 2013)
- Joxe Azurmendi: "Kierkegaard-en 'egunkari ezkutua'", in J.L. Ormaetxea, Txillardegi lagun giroan, Bilbo: UEU, 2000
- Altzibar, Xabier 2012. "The Essay in Basque", in Mari Jose Olaziregi, Basque Literary History, Reno: Center for Basque Studies/University of Nevada. p. 284
- Anaitasuna, 328.
- website of UEU Archived 26 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- website of Basque Government.
- website of Eusko Ikaskuntza
- report of Amaia Ereñaga, Gara, 9 November 2012 (Retrieved 29 October 2013)
- "website of Basque Language Publishers Association". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- website of The Council of Gipuzkoa Archived 19 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- The jury noted that the work allows us to rethink Europe. Website of Basque Government Archived 23 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- "Joxe Azurmendi". Archived from the original on 31 October 2013. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
- Anaitasuna on the website of Euskaltzaindia.
- RIEV 48. Archived 2 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- Aizpuru, A. (coord.) 2012: Euskal Herriko pentsamenduaren gida, Bilbo: UEU ISBN 978-84-8438-435-9.
- Aizpuru, A. 2013: Suak erreko ez balu (I), hAUSnART, 3:102–121.
- Altzibar, X. 2011: "XX. mendeko euskal literatura: saiakera" in Mari Jose Olaziregi, Euskal literaturaren historia, Donostia: EIZEI ISBN 978-84-615-0546-3. English edition: Olaziregi, Mari Jose (2012). Basque Literary History, Reno: Center for Basque Studies/University of Nevada. ISBN 978-1-935709-19-0 (pbk.).
- Arrieta, A. 2013: "Eranskina: Joxe Azurmendiren Azken egunak Gandiagarekin" in Arimak eta balioak, Donostia: Jakin. ISBN 978-84-95234-48-3.
- del Olmo, K. 2013: "Joxe Azurmendi: Espainolak eta euskaldunak (1992)" in Egungo euskal saiakeraren historia, Bilbo: EHU. ISBN 978-84-9860-829-8.
- Hegats. Literatur aldizkaria (45). ISSN 1130-2445.
- Sudupe, P. 2011: 50eko Hamarkadako Euskal Literatura II, Donostia: Utriusque Vasconiae ISBN 978-84-938329-5-7.
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