Frederick III, German Emperor

German Emperor and King of Prussia in 1888 / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Frederick III or Friedrich III (German: Friedrich Wilhelm Nikolaus Karl; 18 October 1831 – 15 June 1888) was German Emperor and King of Prussia for 99 days between March and June 1888, during the Year of the Three Emperors. Known informally as "Fritz",[1] he was the only son of Emperor Wilhelm I and was raised in his family's tradition of military service. Although celebrated as a young man for his leadership and successes during the Second Schleswig, Austro-Prussian and Franco-Prussian wars,[2][3] he nevertheless professed a hatred of warfare and was praised by friends and enemies alike for his humane conduct. Following the unification of Germany in 1871 his father, then King of Prussia, became German Emperor. Upon Wilhelm's death at the age of ninety on 9 March 1888, the thrones passed to Frederick, who had been German Crown Prince for seventeen years and Crown Prince of Prussia for twenty-seven years. Frederick was suffering from cancer of the larynx when he died, aged fifty-six, following unsuccessful medical treatments for his condition.

Quick facts: Frederick III, German Emperor King of Pruss...
Frederick III
Frederick as Crown Prince, c. 1878
German Emperor
King of Prussia
Reign9 March 1888 – 15 June 1888
PredecessorWilhelm I
SuccessorWilhelm II
ChancellorOtto von Bismarck
BornPrince Frederick William of Prussia
(1831-10-18)18 October 1831
New Palace, Potsdam, Kingdom of Prussia
Died15 June 1888(1888-06-15) (aged 56)
New Palace, Potsdam, Prussia, German Empire
Burial18 June 1888
Friedenskirche, and then in a mausoleum attached to the church, Potsdam
(m. 1858)
FatherWilliam I, German Emperor
MotherPrincess Augusta of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
ReligionLutheranism (Prussian United)
SignatureFrederick III's signature

Frederick married Victoria, Princess Royal, oldest child of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. The couple were well-matched; their shared liberal ideology led them to seek greater representation for commoners in the government. Despite his conservative militaristic family background, Frederick had developed liberal tendencies as a result of his ties with Britain and his studies at the University of Bonn. As crown prince, he often opposed the conservative German chancellor Otto von Bismarck, particularly in speaking out against Bismarck's policy of uniting Germany through force, and in urging that the power of the chancellorship be curbed. Liberals in both Germany and Britain hoped that as emperor, Frederick would move to liberalise the German Empire.

Frederick and Victoria were great admirers of Prince Albert, Queen Victoria's husband. They planned to rule as co-monarchs, like Princess Victoria's parents, and to reform what they saw as flaws in the executive branch that Bismarck had created for himself. The office of chancellor, responsible to the emperor, would be replaced with a British-style cabinet, with ministers instead responsible to the Reichstag. Government policy would be based on the consensus of the cabinet. Frederick "described the Imperial Constitution as ingeniously contrived chaos."[4] According to Michael Balfour:

The Crown Prince and Princess shared the outlook of the Progressive Party, and Bismarck was haunted by the fear that should the old Emperor die—and he was now in his seventies—they would call on one of the Progressive leaders to become Chancellor. He sought to guard against such a turn by keeping the Crown Prince from a position of any influence and by using foul means as well as fair to make him unpopular.[5]

However, Frederick's illness prevented him from effectively establishing policies and measures to achieve this, and such moves as he was able to make were later abandoned by his son and successor, Wilhelm II. The timing of Frederick's death and the brevity of his reign are important topics among historians. His premature demise is considered a potential turning point in German history;[6] and whether or not he would have made the Empire more liberal if he had lived longer is still a popular discussion among historians.