# Law of excluded middle

## Logic theorem / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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In logic, the **law of excluded middle** or the **principle of excluded middle** states that for every proposition, either this proposition or its negation is true.^{[1]}^{[2]} It is one of the three laws of thought, along with the law of noncontradiction, and the law of identity; however, no system of logic is built on just these laws, and none of these laws provides inference rules, such as modus ponens or De Morgan's laws. The law is also known as the **law** / **principle** **of the excluded third**, in Latin * principium tertii exclusi*. Another Latin designation for this law is

*or "no third [possibility] is given". In classical logic, the law is a tautology.*

**tertium non datur**The principle should not be confused with the semantical principle of bivalence, which states that every proposition is either true or false. The principle of bivalence always implies the law of excluded middle, while the converse is not always true. A commonly cited counterexample uses statements unprovable now, but provable in the future to show that the law of excluded middle may apply when the principle of bivalence fails.^{[3]}