# Accumulation point

In mathematics, a limit point, accumulation point, or cluster point of a set $S$ in a topological space $X$ is a point $x$ that can be "approximated" by points of $S$ in the sense that every neighbourhood of $x$ with respect to the topology on $X$ also contains a point of $S$ other than $x$ itself. A limit point of a set $S$ does not itself have to be an element of $S.$ There is also a closely related concept for sequences. A cluster point or accumulation point of a sequence $(x_{n})_{n\in \mathbb {N} }$ in a topological space $X$ is a point $x$ such that, for every neighbourhood $V$ of $x,$ there are infinitely many natural numbers $n$ such that $x_{n}\in V.$ This definition of a cluster or accumulation point of a sequence generalizes to nets and filters.
The limit points of a set should not be confused with adherent points (also called points of closure) for which every neighbourhood of $x$ contains a point of $S$ (that is, any point belonging to closure of the set). Unlike for limit points, an adherent point of $S$ may be $x$ itself. A limit point can be characterized as an adherent point that is not an isolated point.
Limit points of a set should also not be confused with boundary points. For example, $0$ is a boundary point (but not a limit point) of the set $\{0\}$ in $\mathbb {R}$ with standard topology. However, $0.5$ is a limit point (though not a boundary point) of interval $[0,1]$ in $\mathbb {R}$ with standard topology (for a less trivial example of a limit point, see the first caption).