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Livermorium is a synthetic chemical element; it has symbol Lv and atomic number 116. It is an extremely radioactive element that has only been created in a laboratory setting and has not been observed in nature. The element is named after the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in the United States, which collaborated with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia, to discover livermorium during experiments conducted between 2000 and 2006. The name of the laboratory refers to the city of Livermore, California, where it is located, which in turn was named after the rancher and landowner Robert Livermore. The name was adopted by IUPAC on May 30, 2012. Five isotopes of livermorium are known, with mass numbers of 288 and 290–293 inclusive; the longest-lived among them is livermorium-293 with a half-life of about 60 milliseconds. A sixth possible isotope with mass number 294 has been reported but not yet confirmed.
|Livermorium in the periodic table|
|Atomic number (Z)||116|
|Group||group 16 (chalcogens)|
|Electron configuration||[Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p4 (predicted)|
|Electrons per shell||2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 6 (predicted)|
|Phase at STP||solid (predicted)|
|Melting point||637–780 K (364–507 °C, 687–944 °F) (extrapolated)|
|Boiling point||1035–1135 K (762–862 °C, 1403–1583 °F) (extrapolated)|
|Density (near r.t.)||12.9 g/cm3 (predicted)|
|Heat of fusion||7.61 kJ/mol (extrapolated)|
|Heat of vaporization||42 kJ/mol (predicted)|
|Oxidation states||(−2), (+2), (+4) (predicted)|
|Atomic radius||empirical: 183 pm (predicted)|
|Covalent radius||162–166 pm (extrapolated)|
|Naming||after Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, itself named partly after Livermore, California|
|Discovery||Joint Institute for Nuclear Research and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (2000)|
|Isotopes of livermorium|
| Category: Livermorium|
In the periodic table, it is a p-block transactinide element. It is a member of the 7th period and is placed in group 16 as the heaviest chalcogen, but it has not been confirmed to behave as the heavier homologue to the chalcogen polonium. Livermorium is calculated to have some similar properties to its lighter homologues (oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium), and be a post-transition metal, though it should also show several major differences from them.
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