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Lucknow (//, Hindustani: [ˈləkʰnəuː] ⓘ Lakhnaū) is the capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and it is also the second largest urban agglomeration in Uttar Pradesh after Kanpur. Lucknow is the administrative headquarters of the eponymous district and division. Having a population of 2.8 million as per 2011 census, it is the eleventh most populous city and the twelfth-most populous urban agglomeration of India. Lucknow has always been a multicultural city that flourished as a North Indian cultural and artistic hub, and the seat of power of Nawabs in the 18th and 19th centuries. It is the most important center of Shia Islam in the Indian Subcontinent and has influence of Persian, Shiite, Arabic and British culture and tradition in the architecture, language and customs. It continues to be an important centre of governance, administration, education, commerce, aerospace, finance, pharmaceuticals, information technology, design, culture, tourism, music, and poetry.
The City of Nawabs, The Golden City of India, Constantinople of the East, Shiraz-e-Hind
|• Type||Municipal Corporation|
|• Body||Lucknow Municipal Corporation|
|• Mayor||Sushma Kharakwal (BJP)|
|• Municipal Commissioner||Inderjeet Singh|
|• Total||631 km2 (244 sq mi)|
|• Rank||5th in India|
|Elevation||123 m (404 ft)|
|• Rank||11th in India|
|• Density||5,500/km2 (14,000/sq mi)|
|• Additional official||Urdu|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|GDP Nominal||$3.83 billion|
|Percapita||$1,363 or ₹0.96 lakh|
|GDP Nominal (Lucknow District)||₹61,193.63 crore (US$7.7 billion) (2020–21)|
|Sex ratio||915 ♀/1000 ♂|
|Effective literacy rate (2011)||85.5%|
Lucknow stands at an elevation of approximately 123 metres (404 ft) above sea level. The city had an area of 402 km2 (155 square miles) until December 2019, when 88 villages were added to the municipal limits and the area increased to 631 km2 (244 square miles). Bounded on the east by Barabanki, on the west by Unnao, on the south by Raebareli and in the north by Sitapur and Hardoi, Lucknow sits on the northwestern shore of the Gomti River. As of 2008[update], there were 110 wards in the city. Morphologically, three clear demarcations exist: The central business district, which is a fully built up area, comprises Hazratganj, Aminabad and Chowk. A middle zone surrounds the inner zone with concrete houses while the outer zone consists of villages.
Historically, Lucknow was the capital of the Awadh region, controlled by the Delhi Sultanate and later the Mughal Empire. It was transferred to the Nawabs of Awadh. In 1856, the British East India Company abolished local rule and took complete control of the city along with the rest of Awadh and, in 1857, transferred it to the British Raj. Along with the rest of India, Lucknow became independent from Britain on 15 August 1947. It has been listed as the 17th-fastest growing city in India and 74th in the world.
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