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Luigi Galvani (//, also US: /-/; Italian: [luˈiːdʒi ɡalˈvaːni]; Latin: Aloysius Galvanus; 9 September 1737 – 4 December 1798) was an Italian physician, physicist, biologist and philosopher, who studied animal electricity. In 1780, he discovered that the muscles of dead frogs' legs twitched when struck by an electrical spark.: 67–71 This was an early study of bioelectricity, following experiments by John Walsh and Hugh Williamson.