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Mahmud of Ghazni

Sultan of the Ghaznavid Empire from 998 to 1030 / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn (Persian: یمین‌الدوله ابوالقاسم محمود بن سبکتگین; 2 November 971 – 30 April 1030), usually known as Mahmud of Ghazni or Mahmud Ghaznavi (Persian: محمود غزنوی),[2] was ruler and Sultan of the Ghaznavid Empire, ruling from 998 to 1030. At the time of his death, his kingdom had been transformed into an extensive military empire, which extended from northwestern Iran proper to the Punjab in the Indian subcontinent, Khwarazm in Transoxiana, and Makran.

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  • Mahmud of Ghazni
  • محمود غزنوی
  • Yamīn-ud-Dawla
  • Mahmud the Idol Breaker
    (Persian: محمود بت‌شکن)
Mahmud of Ghazni (center) receives a robe from Caliph Al-Qadir; painting by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani
Sultan of the Ghaznavid Empire
  • 1 March 998 – 30 April 1030
PredecessorIsmail of Ghazni
SuccessorMuhammad of Ghazni
Born2 November 971
Ghazni, Zabulistan, Samanid Empire (present-day Afghanistan)
Died30 April 1030(1030-04-30) (aged 58)
Ghazni, Zabulistan, Ghaznavid Empire (present-day Afghanistan)
Mosque and Tomb of Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, Ghazni Province, Afghanistan [1]
Yamīn-ud-Dawla Abul-Qāṣim (یمین‌الدوله ابوالقاسم "Right-hand man of the State")
Maḥmūd ibn Sebüktegīn ("Mahmud, son of Sebutegin")
Persianیمین‌الدوله ابوالقاسم محمود بن سبکتگین
DynastyHouse of Ghaznavid
ReligionSunni Islam (Hanafi)
Military career
Years of servicec. 998 – 1030
AwardsRobe of honour from Caliph Al-Qadir in 1000 CE.
A portrait of Mahmud Ghaznavi

Highly Persianized,[3] Mahmud continued the bureaucratic, political, and cultural customs of his predecessors, the Samanids. He established the ground for a future Persianate state in Punjab, particularly centered on Lahore, a city he conquered.[4] His capital of Ghazni evolved into a significant cultural, commercial, and intellectual centre in the Islamic world, almost rivalling the important city of Baghdad. The capital appealed to many prominent figures, such as al-Biruni and Ferdowsi.[4]

Mahmud ascended the throne at the age of 27[5] upon his father's death, albeit after a brief war of succession with his brother Ismail. He was the first ruler to hold the title Sultan ("authority"), signifying the extent of his power while at the same time preserving an ideological link to the suzerainty of the Abbasid Caliphs. During his rule, he invaded and plundered the richest cities and temple towns, such as Mathura and Somnath in medieval India seventeen times, and used the booty to build his capital in Ghazni.[6][7]