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The Massylii or Maesulians (Neo-Punic: 𐤌𐤔𐤋𐤉𐤉𐤌, MŠLYYM[1]) were a Berber[2][3] federation in eastern Numidia (central and eastern Algeria),[4] which was formed by an amalgamation of smaller tribes during the 4th century BC.[5] They were ruled by a king. On their loosely defined western frontier were the powerful Masaesyli. To their east lay the territory of the rich and powerful Carthaginian Republic. Their relationship to Carthage resembled that of a protectorate.[5] Carthage maintained its dominance over the Massylii by skillful diplomatic manoeuvering, playing off local tribal and kingdom rivalries.[5] The principal towns of the Massylii were Cirta, Tébessa and Thugga in modern-day Algeria and Tunisia.

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