Mawayana language

Arawakan language of South America / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Mawayana (Mahuayana), also known as Mapidian (Maopidyán), is a moribund Arawakan language of northern South America. It used to be spoken by Mawayana [nl] people living in ethnic Wai-wai and Tiriyó villages in Brazil, Guyana and Suriname.[5][2] As of 2015, the last two speakers of the language are living in Kwamalasamutu.[6][2]

Quick Facts Native to, Native speakers ...
Mawayana
Mapidian
Native toBrazil, Guyana and Suriname
Native speakers
2 (2015)[1][2]
Arawakan
Dialects
  • Mawakwa?
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
mzx  Mawayana
mpw  Mapidian (duplicate code)[4]
Glottologmapi1252  Mapidian-Mawayana
mawa1268  Mawakwa
ELPMawayana
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Classification

Aikhenvald (1999) lists Mawayana (and possibly Mawakwa as a dialect) together with Wapishana under a Rio Branco (North-Arawak) branch of the Arawakan family. Carl-in (2006:314) notes that Mawayana "is closely related to Wapishana" and according to Ramirez (2001:530) they share at least 47% of their lexicon.

Phonology

Mawayana has, among its consonants, two implosives, /ɓ/ and /ɗ/, and what has been described as a "retroflex fricativised rhotic", represented with , that it shares with Wapishana. The vowel systems contains four vowels (/i-e, a, ɨ, u-o/), each of which has a nasalised counterpart.[7]

Consonants

More information Labial, Alveolar ...
Mawayana consonant phonemes:[5]
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive plain t ʧ k ʔ
implosive ɓ ɗ ɗʲ
Fricative ʃ
Rhotic ɾ
Nasal m n
Glide j w
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Vowels

Mawayana vowel phonemes:[5]

More information Front, Central ...
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Vowels have both nasal and length contrast.

Morphology

More information singular, plural ...
Mawayana personal affixes:[5]
singular plural
1 n-/m- -na wa- -wi
2 ɨ-/i- -i ɨ- -wiko
3 ɾ(ɨ/iʔ)- -sɨ na- -nu
3 refl. a-
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Mawayana verbal affixes:[5]
thematic-ta, -ɗa, -ɓa
present-e
reciprocal-(a)ka
adjectival-ɾe, -ke

Morphosyntax

Mawayana has a polysynthetic morphology, mainly head-marking and with suffixes, although there are pronominal prefixes. The verbal arguments are indexed on the verb through subject suffixes on intransitive verbs, while agent prefixes and object suffixes on transitive verbs (Carlin 2006:319).

n-kataba-sï

1A-grab.PST-3O

n-kataba-sï

1A-grab.PST-3O

'I grabbed him.'

tõwã-sï

sleep.PST-3S

tõwã-sï

sleep.PST-3S

'He fell asleep.'

nnu

1PN

a-na

when-1S

mauɗa

die

chika-dza

NEG-COMPL

Mawayana

mawayana

nnu a-na mauɗa chika-dza Mawayana

1PN when-1S die NEG-COMPL mawayana

'When I die there will be no Mawayana left at all.'

Notes

  1. Hammarström (2015) Ethnologue 16/17/18th editions: a comprehensive review: online appendices
  2. Carlin 2006, p. 317.

References

  • Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y. (1999). "The Arawak language family". In Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y.; Dixon, R.M.W. (eds.). The Amazonian languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 65–106.
  • Carlin, Eithne B (2006). "Feeling the need. The borrowing of Cariban functional categories into Mawayana (Arawak)". In Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y.; Dixon, R.M.W. (eds.). Grammars in contact: A cross-linguistic typology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Carlin, Eithne B (2011). "Nested identities in the Southern Guyana-Surinam corner". In Hornborg, Alf; Hill, Jonathan D. (eds.). Ethnicity in ancient Amazonia: Reconstructing past identities from archaeology, linguistics, and ethnohistory. University Press of Colorado. pp. 225–236.
  • Carlin, Eithne B; Boven, Karin (2002). "The native population: Migration and identities". In Carlin, Eithne B.; Arends, Jacques (eds.). Atlas of the languages of Suriname. KITLV Press. pp. 11–45.
  • Carlin, Eithne B; Mans, Jimmy (2013). "Movement through time in the southern Guianas: deconstructing the Amerindian kaleidoscope". In Carlin, Eithne B.; Leglise, Isabelle; Migge, Bettina; et al. (eds.). In and out of Suriname: Language, mobility, and identity. Caribbean Series. Leiden: Brill.
  • Mans, Jimmy; Carlin, Eithne B. (2015). Movement through Time in the Southern Guianas: Deconstructing the Amerindian Kaleidoscope. Leiden: Brill.
  • Ramirez, Henri (2001). Línguas Arawak da Amazônia setentrional (in Portuguese). Manaus: Universidade Federal do Amazonas.