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Country in Southeast Europe / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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42°30′N 19°18′E

Quick facts: .plainlist ol,.mw...
Oj, svijetla majska zoro
(English: "Oh, Bright Dawn of May")
Location of Montenegro (green)in Europe (dark grey)  –  [Legend]
Location of Montenegro (green)

in Europe (dark grey)   [Legend]

and largest city
42°47′N 19°28′E
Official languagesMontenegrin[2]
Languages in official use[3]
Ethnic groups
  • 19.1% Islam
  • 1.3% no religion
  • 1% others
  • 2.6% no answer
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
Jakov Milatović
Dritan Abazović
Danijela Đurović
Establishment history
10th century
13 March 1852
 Treaty of Berlin
Independence recognised
13 July 1878
Kingdom proclaimed
28 August 1910
26 November 1918
29 November 1945
State union with Serbia
27 April 1992
21 May 2006
 Independence restored
3 June 2006
13,812 km2 (5,333 sq mi) (156th)
 Water (%)
 2023 estimate
Neutral decrease 602,445[5] (169th)
43.6/km2 (112.9/sq mi) (133rd)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
$17.282 billion[6] (149th)
 Per capita
$28,686[6] (63rd)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
$7.027 billion[6] (153rd)
 Per capita
$11,664[6] (73rd)
Gini (2020)Positive decrease 32.9[7]
HDI (2021)Increase 0.832[8]
very high · 49th
CurrencyEuro ()a (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 Summer (DST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+382
ISO 3166 codeME
  1. Adopted unilaterally; Montenegro is not a member of the Eurozone.

Montenegro (/ˌmɒntɪˈnɡr, -ˈnɡr, -ˈnɛɡr/ MON-tih-NEEG-roh, -NAYG-roh, -NEG-roh;[9] Montenegrin: Crna Gora,[lower-alpha 1][lower-alpha 2] Црна Гора,[lower-alpha 3] lit.'Black Mountain')[10][11] is a country in Southeast Europe.[12] It is bordered by Bosnia and Herzegovina to the north, Serbia to the northeast, Kosovo to the east, Albania to the southeast, and Croatia and the Adriatic Sea to the northwest with a coastline of 293.5 km.[13] Podgorica (Cyrillic: Подгорица) is the country's capital and its largest city, it covers 10.4% of Montenegro's territory of 13,812 square kilometres (5,333 sq mi), and is home to roughly 31% of its total population of 621,000.[14] Cetinje (Cyrillic: Цетиње) is the former royal capital and cultural centre of Montenegro and is the location of several national institutions, including the official residence of the President of Montenegro.[15]

During the Early Medieval period, three principalities were located on the territory of modern-day Montenegro: Duklja, roughly corresponding to the southern half; Travunia, the west; and Rascia proper, the north.[16][17][18] The Principality of Zeta emerged in the 14th and 15th centuries. From the late 14th century to the late 18th century, large parts of southern Montenegro were ruled by the Venetian Republic and incorporated into Venetian Albania.[19] The name Montenegro was first used to refer to the country in the late 15th century. After falling under Ottoman Empire rule, Montenegro gained semi-autonomy in 1696 under the rule of the House of Petrović-Njegoš, first as a theocracy and later as a secular principality. Montenegro's independence was recognised by the Great Powers at the Congress of Berlin in 1878. In 1910, the country became a kingdom. After World War I, the kingdom became part of Yugoslavia. Following the breakup of Yugoslavia, the republics of Serbia and Montenegro together proclaimed a federation. In June 2006 Montenegro declared its independence from Serbia and Montenegro following an independence referendum, creating Montenegro and Serbia as they exist today.[20] Montenegro is therefore one of the newest internationally-recognised countries in the world.[21]

Montenegro has an upper-middle-income economy,[22] and ranks 49th in the Human Development Index.[23] It is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Council of Europe, and the Central European Free Trade Agreement.[24] Montenegro is also a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean,[25] and has been in the process of joining the European Union since 2012.[26]