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National People's Congress

National legislature of the People's Republic of China / From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The National People's Congress (NPC) is the highest organ of state power of the People's Republic of China. The NPC is the only branch of government in China, and per the principle of unified power, all state organs from the State Council to the Supreme People's Court (SPC) are subservient to it. With 2,977 members in 2023, it is the largest legislative body in the world. The NPC is elected for a term of five years. It holds annual sessions every spring, usually lasting from 10 to 14 days, in the Great Hall of the People on the west side of Tiananmen Square in Beijing.

Quick facts: National People's Congress of the People's Re...
National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China

14th National People's Congress
Coat of arms or logo
FoundedSeptember 15, 1954
(69 years ago)
Preceded by
Zhao Leji, CCP
since 10 March 2023
Liu Qi, CCP
since 10 March 2023
SeatsNPC: 2977
NPCSC: 175
NPC political groups
  •   CCP (?)
  •   CPWDP (60)
  •   JS (56)
  •   CDL (56)
  •   CAPD (54)
  •   CNDCA (44)
  •   RCCK (41)
  •   CZGP (?)
  •   TDSL (14)
  •   Independent (?)
  •   Vacant (1)
NPCSC political groups
Length of term
5 years
Indirect modified block combined approval voting[1][2][3][4]
Indirect modified block combined approval voting[1][2][3][4]
Last NPC election
December 2022 – January 2023
Last NPCSC election
11 March 2023
Next NPC election
Late 2027 – early 2028
Next NPCSC election
March 2028
RedistrictingStanding Committee of the National People's Congress
Meeting place
Great Hall of the People
Xicheng District, Beijing, China
Website Edit this at Wikidata
Constitution of the People's Republic of China
Rules of Procedure for the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China (English)
Quick facts: National People's Congress, Chinese name, Sim...
National People's Congress
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese全国人民代表大会
Traditional Chinese全國人民代表大會
Literal meaningNationwide People Representative Assembly
Tibetan name
Zhuang name
ZhuangDaengx Guek Yinzminz Daibyauj Daihhoih
Korean name
Mongolian name
Mongolian CyrillicБөх улсын ардын төлөөлөгчдийн их хурал
Mongolian scriptᠪᠦᠬᠦ ᠤᠯᠤᠰ ᠤᠨ
ᠠᠷᠠᠳ ᠤᠨ
ᠲᠦᠯᠤᠭᠡᠯᠡᠭᠴᠢᠳ ᠤᠨ
ᠶᠡᠭᠡ ᠬᠤᠷᠠᠯ
Uyghur name
Uyghurمەملىكەتلىك خەلق قۇرۇلتىيى
Kazakh name
Kazakhمەملەكەتتىك حالىق قۇرىلتايى
Yi name

As China is a unitary Marxist–Leninist one-party authoritarian state, the NPC has been characterized as a rubber stamp for the ruling Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Most delegates to the NPC are officially elected by local people's congresses at the provincial level; local legislatures which are indirectly elected at all levels except the county-level. The CCP controls nomination and election processes at every level in the people's congress system, allowing it to stamp out any opposition.

The National People's Congress meets in full session for roughly two weeks each year and votes on important pieces of legislation and personnel assignments, among other things. These sessions are usually timed to occur with the meetings of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), a consultative body whose members represent various social groups. As the NPC and the CPPCC are the main deliberative bodies of China, they are often referred to as the Two Sessions (Lianghui). According to the NPC, its annual meetings provide an opportunity for the officers of state to review past policies and to present future plans to the nation. Due to the temporary nature of the plenary sessions, most of NPC's power is delegated to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPCSC), which consists of about 170 legislators and meets in continuous bi-monthly sessions, when its parent NPC is not in session.

Membership to the congress is part-time in nature and carries no pay. Delegates to the National People's Congress are allowed to hold seats in other bodies of government simultaneously and the party and the NPC typically includes all of the senior officials in Chinese politics. However, membership of the Standing Committee is often full-time and carries a salary, and Standing Committee members are not allowed to simultaneously hold positions in executive, judicial, prosecutorial or supervisory posts. Under China's Constitution, the NPC is structured as a unicameral legislature, with the power to amend the Constitution, legislate and oversee the operations of the government, and elect the major officers of the National Supervisory Commission, the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate, the Central Military Commission, and the state.

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