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The New Covenant (Hebrew ברית חדשה berīt khadashahⓘ Hebrew pronunciation: [beˈʁit χaˈdaʃah]; Koine Greek διαθήκη καινή diathḗkē kainḗ Greek pronunciation: [ðiaˈθici ceˈni]) is a biblical interpretation which was originally derived from a phrase which is contained in the Book of Jeremiah (Jeremiah 31:31–34), in the Hebrew Bible (or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible).
Generally, Christians believe that the promised New Covenant was instituted at the Last Supper as part of the Eucharist, which, in the Gospel of John, includes the New Commandment. Based on the biblical passage which reads that, "For where a testament is, there must also of necessity be the death of the testator. For a testament is of force after men are dead: otherwise it is of no strength at all while the testator liveth", Protestants tend to believe that the New Covenant only came into force with the death of Jesus Christ. The commentary to the Roman Catholic New American Bible also affirms that Christ is the "testator whose death puts his will into effect". Thus, Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant, and they also believe that the blood of Christ, which was shed during his crucifixion, is the only blood sacrifice which is required by the covenant.
There are several Christian eschatologies that further define the New Covenant. For example, an inaugurated eschatology defines and describes the New Covenant as an ongoing relationship between Christian believers and God that will be in full fruition after the Second Coming of Christ; that is, it will not only be in full fruition in believing hearts, it will also be in fruition in the future external world. The description of the connection between the blood of Christ and the New Covenant is contained in most modern English translations of the New Testament such as the passage which reads: "this cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood".
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