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|Died||August 3, 2019 (aged 87)|
|Nationality||Soviet Union (Russia from 25 December 1991)|
Nikolai Semenovich Kardashev (Russian: Никола́й Семёнович Кардашёв, IPA: [nʲɪkɐˈlaj sʲɪˈmʲɵnəvʲɪtɕ kərdɐˈʂof]; 25 April 1932 – 3 August 2019) was a Soviet and Russian astrophysicist, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, and the deputy director of the Astro Space Center of PN Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow.
In 1963 Kardashev examined quasar CTA-102, the first Soviet effort in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). In this work he came up with the idea that some galactic civilizations would be perhaps millions or billions of years ahead of us, and created the Kardashev classification scheme to rank such civilizations. Kardashev defined three levels of civilizations, based on energy consumption: Type I with "technological level close to the level presently attained on earth, with energy consumption at ≈4×1019 erg/sec (4 × 1012 watts)"; Type II, "a civilization capable of harnessing the energy radiated by its own star"; and Type III, "a civilization in possession of energy on the scale of its own galaxy". Serious Russian efforts in SETI predate similar programs in the United States by some years. Other notable experts in the Soviet Union were Vsevolod Troitsky and Iosif Shklovsky.
Kardashev became a corresponding (associate) member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Division of General Physics and Astronomy on December 12, 1976. He became a full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences on March 21, 1994 and was awarded the Demidov Prize in 2014.
- Also transliterated Kardashov, preserving the letter yo.
- "Умер выдающийся советский астрофизик Николай Кардашев" (in Russian). Красная Весна. 2019-08-04.
- Kardashev, Nikolai (1964). "Transmission of Information by Extraterrestrial Civilizations". Soviet Astronomy. 8: 217. Bibcode:1964SvA.....8..217K.
- "Full Member of RAS Oleg Nefedov was awarded the Demidov Prize". Russian Academy of Sciences. February 13, 2015. Retrieved September 11, 2015.
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