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North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), is a country in East Asia. It constitutes the northern half of the Korean Peninsula and borders China and Russia to the north at the Yalu (Amnok) and Tumen rivers, and South Korea to the south at the Korean Demilitarized Zone. North Korea's border with South Korea is a disputed border as both countries claim the entirety of the Korean Peninsula. The country's western border is formed by the Yellow Sea, while its eastern border is defined by the Sea of Japan. North Korea, like its southern counterpart, claims to be the legitimate government of the entire peninsula and adjacent islands. Pyongyang is the capital and largest city.
Democratic People's Republic of Korea
"The Patriotic Song"
and largest city
|Official languages||Korean (Munhwaŏ)|
|Government||Unitary one-party socialist republic under a totalitarian hereditary dictatorship|
|Kim Jong Un|
|Legislature||Supreme People's Assembly|
|2333 BCE (mythological)|
• Goryeo dynasty
• Joseon dynasty
|17 July 1392|
|12 October 1897|
|22 August 1910|
|1 March 1919|
|2 September 1945|
|6 September 1945|
|3 October 1945|
|8 February 1946|
|22 February 1947|
• DPRK established
|9 September 1948|
|27 December 1972|
|120,540 km2 (46,540 sq mi) (98th)|
• Water (%)
• 2023 estimate
|212/km2 (549.1/sq mi) (45th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2015 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2019 estimate|
• Per capita
|Currency||Korean People's won (₩) (KPW)|
|Time zone||UTC+9 (Pyongyang Time)|
|ISO 3166 code||KP|
Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period (2.6 Ma–300 Ka). The history of present-day North Korea began with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BC by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in AD 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty (918–1392) and the Joseon dynasty (1392–1897). In 1897, King Gojong proclaimed the Korean Empire, which was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. In 1945, after the Japanese surrender at the end of World War II, Korea was divided into two zones along the 38th parallel, with the north occupied by the Soviet Union and the south occupied by the United States. In 1948, separate governments were formed: the socialist and Soviet-aligned Democratic People's Republic of Korea in the north, and the capitalist, Western-aligned Republic of Korea in the south. The Korean War began when North Korean forces invaded South Korea in 1950. In 1953, the Korean Armistice Agreement brought about a ceasefire and established a demilitarized zone (DMZ), but no formal peace treaty has ever been signed. Post-war North Korea benefited greatly from economic aid and expertise provided by other Eastern Bloc countries. However, Kim Il Sung, North Korea's first leader, later purged both pro-Soviet and pro-Chinese elements from the ruling Workers' Party of Korea and promoting his personal philosophy of Juche as the state ideology. Pyongyang's international isolation sharply accelerated from the 1980s onwards as the Cold War came to an end. The fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 then brought about a sharp decline to the North Korean economy. From 1994 to 1998, North Korea suffered a famine that resulted in the deaths of between 240,000 and 420,000 people, and the population continues to suffer from malnutrition.
According to Article 1 of the state constitution, North Korea is an "independent socialist state". It holds elections, though they have been described by independent observers as sham elections, as North Korea is a totalitarian dictatorship with a comprehensive cult of personality around the Kim family. The Workers' Party of Korea is the ruling party of North Korea and leads the Democratic Front for the Reunification of Korea, the sole legal political movement in the country. According to Article 3 of the constitution, Kimilsungism–Kimjongilism is the official ideology of North Korea. The means of production are owned by the state through state-run enterprises and collectivized farms. Most services – such as healthcare, education, housing, and food production – are subsidized or state-funded.
North Korea follows Songun, a "military first" policy which prioritizes the Korean People's Army in state affairs and the allocation of resources. It possesses nuclear weapons, and is the country with the highest number of military and paramilitary personnel. Its active-duty army of 1.28 million soldiers is the fourth largest in the world. North Korea is widely considered to have the worst human rights record in the world. In addition to being a member of the United Nations since 1991, North Korea is also a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, G77, and the ASEAN Regional Forum.