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OS X Mountain Lion (version 10.8) is the ninth major release of macOS, Apple Inc.'s desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers. OS X Mountain Lion was released on July 25, 2012, for purchase and download through Apple's Mac App Store, as part of a switch to releasing OS X versions online and every year, rather than every two years or so. Named to signify its status as a refinement of the previous OS X version, Lion, Apple's stated aims in developing Mountain Lion were to allow users to more easily manage and synchronise content between multiple Apple devices and to make the operating system more familiar.
|Version of the macOS operating system|
|Source model||Closed, with open source components|
|Released to |
|July 25, 2012|
|Latest release||10.8.5 (Build 12F2560) / August 13, 2015|
|Kernel type||Hybrid (XNU)|
|License||Apple Public Source License (APSL) and Apple end-user license agreement (EULA)|
|Preceded by||OS X Lion|
|Succeeded by||OS X Mavericks|
|Official website||Apple - OS X Mountain Lion - Move your Mac even further ahead. at the Wayback Machine (archived 2012-12-31)|
|Tagline||With all-new features inspired by the iPad, the Mac just keeps getting better and better.|
|Unsupported as of about November 19, 2015. iTunes is fully unsupported as of August 2016.|
|Articles in the series|
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The operating system gained the new malware-blocking system Gatekeeper and integration with Apple's online Game Center and iCloud services, while the Safari web browser was updated to version 6. As on iOS, Notes and Reminders became full applications, separate from Mail and Calendar, while the iChat application was replaced with a version of iOS's Messages. Mountain Lion also added a version of iOS's Notification Center, which groups updates from different applications in one place. Integrated links allowing the user to rapidly transfer content to Twitter were present in the operating system from launch. Facebook integration was also planned but unfinished at launch date. It was released as a downloadable update later.
OS X Mountain Lion received positive reviews, with critics praising Notification Center, Messages, and speed improvements over Mac OS X Lion, while criticizing iCloud for unreliability and Game Center for lack of games. Mountain Lion sold three million units in the first four days, and has sold 28 million units as of June 10, 2013, making it Apple's most popular OS X release. Mountain Lion was the last paid upgrade for an OS X major release, with OS X Mavericks and later being free. Apple later allowed free downloads of the OS, especially for customers of older and no longer officially supported Macintosh computers, starting on June 30, 2021. The same practice was also applied to its predecessor, Mac OS X Lion.